Alpert, G. P. and R. G. Dunham. 1992. Policing Urban America. Prospect Heights, Illinois: Waveland Press.
American Sociological Association. 2002. Statement of the American Sociological Association on the Importance of Collecting Data and Doing Social Scientific Research on Race. Website: http://www.asanet.org/. Accessed on: February 10, 2003.
Armstrong, G. 1977. "Females under the law - protected but unequal". Crime and Delinquency 23: 109-120.
Bala, Nicholas. 1997. Young Offenders Law. Concord: Irwin Law.
Bala, Nicholas. 2003. Youth Criminal Justice Law. Toronto: Irwin Law.
Bala, Nicholas and Kenneth L. Clarke. 1981. The Child and the Law. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.
Bala, Nicholas and Heino Lilles. 1984. The Young Offenders Act Annotated. Don Mills, Ont.: Richard De Boo, and Ottawa: Ministry of Supply and Services Canada.
Bala, Nicholas, Richard Weiler, Peter Copple, Ronald B. Smith, Joseph P. Hornick, and Joanne J. Paetsch. 1994a. A Police Reference Manual on Youth and Violence. Ottawa: Canadian Research Institute for Law and the Family and the Solicitor General of Canada.
Bala, Nicholas, Joseph P. Hornick, M.L. McCall, and Margaret E. Clarke. 1994b. State Responses to Youth Crime: A Consideration of Principles. Ottawa: Department of Justice Canada.
Ball, Richard A. and G. David Curry. 1995. The logic of definition in criminology: Purposes and methods for defining "gangs". Criminology 33(2): 225-245.
Bell, Sandra J. 2002. Young Offenders and Juvenile Justice. Toronto: Nelson.
Bittner, Egon. 1970. The Functions of the Police in Modern Society. Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health.
Black, Donald. 1980. The Manners and Customs of the Police. New York: Academic Press.
Black, Donald and Albert J. Reiss, Jr. 1970. "Police control of juveniles." American Sociological Review 35: 63-77.
Blau, Peter M. and Richard A. Schoenherr. 1971. The Structure of Organizations. New York: Basic.
Braithwaite, John. 1989. Crime, Shame and Reintegration. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Brown, Michael K. 1981a. Working the Street: Police Discretion and the Dilemmas of Reform. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
Brown, William J. 1981b. "The future of policing in Canada." In W. T. McGrath and M. P. Mitchell (eds.), The Police Function in Canada. Toronto: Methuen.
Bursik, Jr., Robert J. 1988. "Social Disorganization and Theories of Crime and Delinquency: Problems and Prospects". Criminology 26(4): 519-551.
Bynum, Jack E. and William E. Thompson. 2002. Juvenile Delinquency. A Sociological Approach. 5th ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Cain, M.E. 1973. Society and the Policeman's Role. London, UK: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. 1999. Canadian Crime Statistics 1998. Catalogue No. 85-205. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. 2000. Canadian Crime Statistics 1999. Catalogue No. 85-205. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. 2001a. Canadian Crime Statistics 2000. Catalogue No. 85-205. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. 2001b. Youth Court Data Tables 1999-00. Catalogue No. 85F0030. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. 2002a. Canadian Crime Statistics 2001. Catalogue No. 85-205. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. 2002b. Uniform Crime Reporting Incident-Based Survey. Version 2.0. Unpublished manual.
Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. 2003. Personal communication. January 20.
Canadian Criminal Justice Association. 2000. Aboriginal peoples and the criminal justice system. Special issue of the Bulletin. May 15.
Caplow, Theodore. Principles of Organization. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Caputo, Tullio and Katharine Kelly. 1997. Police Perceptions of Current Responses to Youth Crime. Catalogue No. JS4-1/1997-3. Ottawa: Ministry of the Solicitor General of Canada.
Carrington, Peter J. 1995. "Has violent youth crime increased? Comment on Corrado and Markwart". Canadian Journal of Criminology 37(1): 61-93.
Carrington, Peter J. 1996. Age and Youth Crime in Canada. Working Document No. 1996-1e. 2 vols. Ottawa: Department of Justice Canada.
Carrington, Peter J. 1998a. Factors Affecting Police Diversion of Young Offenders: A Statistical Analysis. Ottawa: Solicitor General of Canada. Accessed on: October 29, 2000.
Carrington, Peter J. 1998b. "Changes in charging of young offenders in Ontario and Saskatchewan after 1984". Canadian Journal of Criminology 40(2): 153-164.
Carrington, Peter J. 1999. "Trends in youth crime in Canada, 1977-1996". Canadian Journal of Criminology 41(1): 1-32.
Carrington, Peter J. 2002. "Group crime in Canada". Canadian Journal of Criminology 44(3): 277-315.
Carrington, Peter J., Sharon Moyer, and Faigie Kopelman. 1986. The Determinants of Pre-dispositional Detention and Release under the Juvenile Delinquents Act. Ottawa: Ministry of the Solicitor General of Canada.
Carrington, Peter J., Sharon Moyer, and Faigie Kopelman. 1988. Factors affecting pre-dispositional detention and release under the Juvenile Delinquents Act. Journal of Criminal Justice 16 463-476.
Carrington, Peter J., and Sharon Moyer. 1994. "Trends in youth crime and police response, pre-and post-YOA". Canadian Journal of Criminology 36(1): 1-28.
Chesney-Lind, M. 1977. "Judicial Paternalism and the Female Status Offender". Crime and Delinquency 23: 121-130.
Chesney-Lind, M. 1988. "Girls in jail." Crime and Delinquency 34: 150-168.
Chesney-Lind, M., and R. G. Shelden. 1992. Girls, Delinquency and Juvenile Justice. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Cicourel, Aaron V. 1968. The Social Organization of Juvenile Justice. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Cohen, L.E., and M. Felson. 1979. "Social Change and Crime Rate Trends: A Routine Activity Approach". American Sociological Review 44: 588-608.
Cohen, L.E., andJ.R. Kluegel. 1978. "Determinants of juvenile court dispositions: Ascriptive and achieved factors in two metropolitan courts." American Sociological Review 43: 162-176.
Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies. 2000. Website: http://www.calea.org/. Accessed on: January 18, 2003.
Commission on Systemic Racism in the Ontario Criminal Justice System. 1995. Report of the Commission on Systemic Racism in the Ontario Criminal Justice System. Toronto: Queen's Printer for Ontario.
Conly, Dennis. 1978. Patterns of Delinquency and Police Action in the Major Metropolitan Areas of Canada, During the Month of December, 1976. Ottawa: Ministry of the Solicitor General.
Cordner, Gary W. 1989. "The Police on Patrol". In D.J. Kenny (Ed.) Police and Policing. New York, NY: Praeger Publishers.
Cordner, Gary W., and Kathryn E. Scarborough. 1997. "Operationalizing community policing in rural America: Sense and nonsense". In Quint C. Thurman and Edmund F. McGarrell (eds.), Community Policing in a Rural Setting. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
Cordner, Gary W. and Robert Sheehan. 1999. Police Administration. 4th ed. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
Crank, P. 1990. "The Influence of Environmental and Organizational Factors on Police Style in Urban and Rural Environments". Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 27(2): 166-189.
Crank, P. 1992. "Police Style and Legally Serious Crime: A Contextual Analysis of Municipal Police Departments". Journal of Criminal Justice 20(5): 401-412.
Crank, P. 1997. "Celebrating agency culture: engaging a traditional cop's heart in organizational change." In Quint C. Thurman & Edmund F. McGarrell (eds.), Community Policing in a Rural Setting. Cincinnati, Ohio: Anderson.
Crank, John P. 1998. Understanding Police Culture. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing Co.
Dannifer, D., and R. Schutt. 1982. "Race and Juvenile Justice Processing in Court and Police Agencies". American Journal of Sociology 87: 1113-1132.
Dantzker, Mark L. and Michael P. Mitchell. 1998. Understanding Today's Police. Canadian ed. Scarborough, Ont.: Prentice Hall.
de Lint, Willem. 1998. "Regulating autonomy: Police discretion as a problem for training". Canadian Journal of Criminology 40(3): 277-304.
deSouza, Paul. 2002. Youth Court Statistics, 2000/01. Juristat 22 (3). Catalogue No. 85-002. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Department of Justice Canada. n.d. A Strategy for the Renewal of Youth Justice in Canada. Ottawa: Department of Justice Canada.
Ditton, J. 1979. Controlology: Beyond the New Criminology. London: Macmillan.
Doob, Anthony N. 1983. "Turning decisions into non-decisions." In Raymond R. Corrado, Marc LeBlanc, and Jean Trépanier (eds.), Current Issues in Juvenile Justice. Toronto: Butterworths.
Doob, Anthony N., and Janet B. L. Chan. 1982. "Factors affecting police decisions to take juveniles to court". Canadian Journal of Criminology 24: 25-37.
Doob, Anthony N., and Lucien A. Beaulieu. 1991. "Variation in the exercise of judicial discretion with young offenders". Canadian Journal of Criminology 34: 35-50.
Doob, Anthony N., V. Marinos, and K.N. Varma. 1995. Youth Crime and the Youth Justice System in Canada. Toronto: Centre of Criminology, University of Toronto.
Doob, Anthony N. and Carla Cesaroni. 2002. Youth Crime and the Youth Justice System in Canada. Toronto: Centre of Criminology, University of Toronto.
Dunphy, Robert, and Gayatri Shankarraman. 2000. Police Resources in Canada, 2000. Catalogue no. 85-225. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Engler, Cheryl, and Shannon Crowe. 2000. Alternative Measures in Canada, 1998-99. Juristat 20 (6). Catalogue No. 85-002. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Ericson, Richard V. 1982. Reproducing Order: A Study of Police Patrol Work. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Ericson, R. V., and K.D. Haggerty. 1997. Policing the Risk Society. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Fagan, J., E. Slaughter and E. Hartstone. 1987. "Blind justice? The impact of race on the juvenile justice process." Crime and Delinquency 33: 224-258.
Fein, Joanna C. 2002. Does Gender Matter? Structural Correlates of Male and Female Youth Crime in Canada. M.A. thesis. Waterloo, Ont.: University of Waterloo.
Ferdinand, T.N. and E.G. Luchterhand. 1970. "Inner-City Youth, the Police, the Juvenile Court, and Justice". Social Problems 17(Spring): 510-527.
Fisher, C. J., and R. I. Mawby. 1982. "Juvenile Delinquency and Police Discretion in an Inner City Area". British Journal of Criminology 22(1): 63-75.
Fisk, J. 1974. The Police Officer's Exercise of Discretion in the Decision to Arrest: Relationship to Organizational Goals and Societal Values. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Institute of Government and Public Affairs.
Forcese, Dennis P. 1992. Policing Canadian Society. Scarborough: Prentice Hall.
Franz, V. and D. M. Jones. 1987. "Perceptions of organizational performance in suburban police departments: A critique of the military model." Journal of Police Science and Administration 15: 153-161.
Freudenburg, William R. 1986. The density of acquaintanceship: An overlooked variable in community research. American Journal of Sociology 92(1): 27-63.
Gabor, Thomas. 1994. "The suppression of crime statistics on race and ethnicity: The price of political correctness." Canadian Journal of Criminology 36 (2): 153-163.
Gaines, L.K., V.E. Kappeler, and J.B. Vaughn. 1984. Policing in America. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
Gandy, John. "The exercise of discretion by the police as a decision making process in the disposition of juvenile offenders." Osgoode Hall Law Journal 8: 329-339.
Gardner, Le Grande, and Donald J. Shoemaker. 1989. "Social Bonding and delinquency: a comparative analysis." Sociological Quarterly 30(3): 481-499.
Goldman, N. 1963. The differential selection of juvenile offenders for court appearance. New York: National Research and Information Center, National Council on Crime and Delinquency.
Goldsmith, Andrew. 1990. "Taking police culture seriously: Police discretion and the limits of the law". Policing and Society 1(1): 91-114.
Gottfredson, Michael R., and Don M. Gottfredson. 1988. Decision Making in Criminal Justice: Toward the Rational Exercise of Discretion, 2nd Edition. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
Greenspan, Edward L. and M. Rosenberg (annotators). 2001. Martin's Annual Criminal Code 2001. Aurora, Ont.: Canada Law Books.
Griffiths, Curt T. and Simon N. Verdun-Jones. 1994. Canadian Criminal Justice. 2nd ed. Toronto: Harcourt Brace.
Grosman, Brian A. 1975. Police Command. Toronto: Macmillan.
Grusky, Oscar. 1961. "Corporate size, bureaucratization, and managerial succession." American Journal of Sociology 67 (3): 261-269.
Hackler, Jim, and Kim Don. 1990. "Estimating system biases: Crime indices that permit comparison across provinces". Canadian Journal of Criminology 32(2): 243-264.
Hagan, John, A. R. Gillis, and J. Chan. 1978. "Explaining official delinquency: A Spatial Study of class, conflict and control". Sociological Quarterly 19: 386-398.
Hagan, J. and C.P. Morden. 1981. "The Police Decision to Detain: A Study of Legal Labelling and Police Deviance". In: C.D. Shearing, ed. Organizational Police Deviance: Its Structure and Control. Toronto: Butterworths.
Hale, Robert L. 1992. "Arrest Rates and Community Characteristics: Social Ecology Theory Applied to a Southern City". American Journal of Criminal Justice 16(2): 17-32.
Hall, Richard H. 2002. Organizations. Structures, Processes, and Outcomes. 8th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
Hall, Richard H., J. Eugene Haas, and Norman J. Johnson. 1967. "Organizational size, complexity, and formalization." American Sociological Review 32(6): 908-909.
Harding, Jim. 1991. "Policing and aboriginal justice." Canadian Journal of Criminology 33 (3-4): 363-383.
Harrison, G. F. and M. A. Pelletier. 1987. "Perceptions of bureaucratization, role performance, and organizational effectiveness in a metropolitan police department." Journal of Police Science and Administration 15: 262-270.
Hartnagel, Timothy F., and G. Won Lee. 1990. "Urban Crime in Canada". Canadian Journal of Criminology 32: 591-606.
Himelfarb, Frum. 1997. "RCMP learning and renewal: Building on strengths." In Quint C. Thurman and Edmund F. McGarrell (eds.), Community Policing in a Rural Setting. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
Hobbs, Dick. 1992. "Criminal collaboration: Youth gangs, subcultures, professional criminals, and organized crime." In Mike Maguire, Rod Morgan, and Robert Reiner (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hohenstein, W.F. 1969. "Factors influencing the police disposition of juvenile offenders." In T. Sellin and M.E. Wolfgang (eds.), Delinquency: Selected Studies. New York: Wiley.
Horne, D. 1992. "Public Opinion Surveys: Implications for Police Organizations". Canadian Police College Journal 16(4): 263-281.
Hornick, Joseph P., Tullio Caputo, Ross Hastings, Patrick J. Knoll, Lorne D. Bertrand, Joanne J. Paetsch, Lyle Stroeder, A. Owen Maguire. 1996. A Police Reference Manual on Crime Prevention and Diversion with Youth. Cat. No. JS42-75/1996E. Ottawa: Canadian Research Institute of Law and the Family and the Solicitor General Canada.
Huizinga, D. and D. S. Elliot. 1987. "Juvenile Offenders: Prevalence, Offender Incidence, and Arrest Rates by Race". Crime and Delinquency 33(April): 206-223.
Jackson, Pamela Irving. 1984. Opportunity and Crime: A Function of City Size. Sociology and Social Research 68 (2): 172-193.
John Howard Society of Ontario. 1994. "Youth Crime: Sorting Fact from Fiction". Fact Sheet #3. Toronto: The John Howard Society of Ontario.
Keane, C., A. R. Gillis, and J. Hagan. 1989. "Deterrence and Amplification of Juvenile Delinquency by Police Contact: The Importance of Gender and Risk-Orientation". British Journal of Criminology 29(4): 336-352.
Klinger, David A. 1996. "Quantifying Law in Police-Citizen Encounters". Journal of Quantitative Criminology 12(4): 391-415.
Klinger, David A. 1997. "Negotiating Order in Patrol Work: An Ecological Theory of Police Response to Deviance". Criminology 35(2): 277-306.
Kowalski, M. 1999. Alternative Measures for Youth in Canada. Ottawa: Juristat.
Krisberg, G., and J. Austin. 1978. The children of Ishmael: Critical perspectives on juvenile justice. Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield.
Krisberg, G., and J. Austin. 1993. Reinventing Juvenile Justice. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
LaPrairie, Carol. 19991. "The Young Offenders Act and aboriginal youth." In Joe Hudson, Joseph P. Hornick, and Barbara A. Burrows (eds.), Justice and the Young Offender in Canada. Toronto: Wall & Thompson.
LaPrairie, Carol. 1992. "Aboriginal crime and justice: Explaining the present, exploring the future." Canadian Journal of Criminology 34(3-4): 281-297.
LaPrairie, Carol. 1993. Dimensions of Aboriginal Over-Representation in Canada: Correctional Institutions and Implications for Crime Control. Ottawa: Department of Justice.
LaPrairie, Carol. 1995. Seen But Not Heard: Native People in the Inner City. Ottawa: Department of Justice Canada.
Lattimore, P.K., C.A. Visher, and R.L. Linster. 1995. "Predicting rearrest for violence among serious youthful offenders." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 32: 54-83.
Law Reform Commission of Canada. 1988. Compelling Appearance, Interim Release and Pre-Trial Detention. Working Paper No. 57. Ottawa: Law Reform Commission of Canada.
Le Blanc, Marc and Marcel Fréchette. 1989. Male Criminal Activity From Childhood Through Youth. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Leeson, Golden and Ann Snyder. 1981. "Specialized police response to the juvenile: the Ottawa Police Force Youth Liaison Section." In W. T. McGrath and M. P. Mitchell (eds.), The Police Function in Canada. Toronto: Methuen.
Leighton, B.N. 1991. "Visions of community policing: Rhetoric or reality in Canada". Canadian Journal of Criminology 33(3-4): 485-522.
Leonard, Tim. 1997. "Crime in Major Metropolitan Areas, 1991-1995". Juristat 17(5). Cat. No. 85-002. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Léonard, Lucie & Shelley Trevethan. 2003. "Children of offenders: Risk associated with involvement in crime." Justice Report 18 (1): 10-11.
Lundman, Richard J. 1980. Police and Policing - An Introduction. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
Lundman, Richard J. 1994. "Demeanor or crime? The Midwest City police-citizen encounters study." Criminology 32: 631-653.
Lundman, Richard J. 1993. Prevention and Control of Juvenile Delinquency. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford.
Lundman, Richard J. 1996a. "Demeanor and Arrest: Additional Evidence from Previously Unpublished Data". Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 33(3): 306-323.
Lundman, Richard J. 1996b. "Extralegal variables and arrest." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 33: 306-323.
Lundman, Richard, J., Richard E. Sykes, and John P. Clark. 1978. "Police Control of Juveniles: A Replication." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 15(1): 74-91.
Lyerly, Robert R. and James K. Skipper. 1981. Differential rates of rural-urban delinquency: a social control approach. Criminology 19(3): 385-399.
Mackenzie, Kenneth D. 1978. Organizational Structures. Arlington Heights, Illinois: AHM Publishing.
MacKillop, Barry. 1999. Alternative Measures in Canada. Catalogue No. 85-545. 2 vols. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Manning, P. 1979. "The Social Control of Police Work". In: S. Hodaway (ed.) The British Police. London: Edward Arnold.
Marinelli, Julie. 2002. Youth Custody and Community Services in Canada, 2000/01. Juristat 22 (8). Catalogue No. 85-002. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Markwart, Alan, and Raymond R. Corrado. 1995. "A response to Carrington". Canadian Journal of Criminology 37(1): 74-87.
Mastrofski, S. 1981. "Policing the Beat: The Impact of Organizational Scale on Patrol Officer Behavior in Urban Residential Neighborhoods". Journal of Criminal Justice 9: 343-358.
McCarthy, Belinda R. 1991. "Social Structure, Crime, and Social Control: An Examination of Factors Influencing Rates and Probabilities of Arrest". Journal of Criminal Justice 19(1): 19-30.
McConnville, M. and Dan Shepherd. 1992. Watching Police Watching Communities. London: Routledge.
McEachern, A.W., and R. Bauzer. 1967. "Factors related to dispositions in juvenile police encounters." In M.W. Kline (ed.), Juvenile Gangs in Context: Theory, Research and Action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
McKenna, Paul F. 1998. Foundations of Policing in Canada. Scarborough, Ont.: Prentice Hall.
Meehan, Albert J. 1993. "Internal Police Records and the Control of Juveniles". British Journal of Criminology 33(4): 504-524.
Miller, J.G. 1996. Search and Destroy: African-American Males in the Criminal Justice System. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ministère de la Sécurité publique du Québec. 2002a. La desserte policière. Modifications détaillés à l'organisation policière en 2002. Website : http://www.msp.gouv.qc.ca/police/index_en.asp. Accessed on: Feb. 3, 2003.
Ministère de la Sécurité publique du Québec. 2002b. Police Acts and Regulations. Website : http://www.msp.gouv.qc.ca/police/index_en.asp. Accessed on: Feb. 8, 2003.
Morash, Merry. 1984. "Establishment of a Juvenile Police Record". Criminology 22(1): 97-111.
Moyer, Sharon, and Peter J. Carrington. 1985. The Attitudes of Canadian Juvenile Justice Professionals Towards the Young Offenders Act. User Report Programs Branch No. 1985-22. Ottawa: Ministry of the Solicitor General Canada.
Mueller, David G., and Cary Heck. 1997. "The Neutral Zone as One Example of Police-Community Problem Solving." In Community Policing in a Rural Setting, ed. Quint C. Thurman and Edmund F. McGarrell. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
Murphy, Christopher. 1991. "The future of non-urban policing in Canada: Modernization, regionalization, provincialization." Canadian Journal of Criminology 33: 333-346.
Neugebauer-Visano, R. 1996. "Kids, Cops, and Colour: The Social Organization of Police-Minority Youth Relations". In: G. O'Bireck (ed.), Not a Kid Anymore. Scarborough: ITP Nelson.
Neuman, W. Lawrence, and Ronald J. Berger. 1988. "Competing Perspectives on Cross-National Crime: An Evaluation of Theory and Evidence." The Sociological Quarterly 29(2): 281-313.
Normandeau, A., and B. Leighton. 1990. A View of the Future of Policing in Canada. Ottawa: Solicitor General of Canada.
Osgood, D. Wayne, and Jeff M. Chambers. 2000. "Social Disorganization Outside the Metropolis: An Analysis of Rural Youth Violence". Criminology 38(1): 81-115.
Ouimet, Marc. 1999. "Crime in Canada and in the United States: A comparative analysis". Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 36 (3): 389-408.
Ouimet, Marc. 2000. "Aggregation bias in ecological research: How social disorganization and criminal opportunities shape the spatial distribution of juvenile delinquency in Montreal". Canadian Journal of Criminology 42(2): 135-156.
Sampson, Robert J. 1986. "Effects of Socioeconomic Context on Official Reaction to Juvenile Delinquency". American Sociological Review 51(December): 876-885.
Sampson, Robert J. and John H. Laub. 1993. Crime in the Making: Pathways and Turning Points through Life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Savoie, Josée. 1999. "Youth Violent Crime". Juristat 19(13). Cat. No. 85-002. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Scanlon, R. Lorcan. 1986. Canadian crime trends. In Robert A. Silverman and James J. Teevan (eds.), Crime in Canadian Society. 3rd ed. Toronto: Butterworths.
Schissel, Bernard. 1993. Social Dimensions of Canadian Youth Justice. Toronto: Oxford University Press.
Schissel, Bernard. 1995. "Trends in Official Juvenile Crime Rates". In: J. Creechan and R. Silverman (eds.) Canadian Delinquency. Scarborough: Prentice Hall Canada.
Schissel, Bernard. 1997. Blaming Children: Youth Crime, Moral Panics, and the Politics of Hate. Halifax: Fernwood.
Schulenberg, Jennifer L. 2003. The social context of police discretion with young offenders: An ecological analysis. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice 45(2): 127-157.
Seagrave, Jayne. 1996. "Defining community policing: Interpretations form the literature, police leaders and police officers". American Journal of Police 15(2): 1-22.
Seagrave, Jayne. 1997. Introduction to Policing in Canada. Scarborough: Prentice Hall Canada Inc.
Shearing, Clifford D. 1984. Dial-A-Cop: A Study of Police Mobilization. Toronto: Centre of Criminology, University of Toronto.
Sherman, L. W. 1980. "Causes of Police Behavior: The Current State of Quantitative Research". Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 17: 69-100.
Skolnick, J.H. 1967. Justice Without Trial: Law Enforcement in Democratic Society. New York, NY: Wiley.
Slovak, Jeffrey S. 1986. Styles of Urban Policing: Organization, Environment, and Police Styles in Selected American Cities. New York, NY: New York University Press.
Smith, Douglas A. 1986. The Neighborhood Context of Police Behavior. In A. J. Reiss Jr. and M. Tonry (eds.), Crime and Justice: A Review of Research. Vol. 12. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Smith, Douglas A., and Christy A. Visher. 1981. "Street-Level Justice: Situational Determinants of Police Arrest Decision." Social Problems 29: 167-177.
Smith, Douglas A., and J. Klein. 1984. "Police Control of Interpersonal Disputes". Social Problems 31: 468-481.
Solicitor General of Ontario. 1992. A Police Learning System for Ontario: Final Report and Recommendations. Toronto: Ministry of the Solicitor General.
Stark, Rodney. 1987. "Deviant Places: A Theory of the Ecology of Crime". Criminology 25: 893-909.
Statistics Canada. 1985. A Profile of Youth Justice in Canada. Cat. No. 85-544-XIE. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics.
Steer, D. 1970. Police Cautions - A Study in the Exercise of Police Discretion. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Swanson, Cheryl. 1978. "The Influence of Organization and Environment, and Police Styles in Selected American Cities". Policy Studies Journal 7: 390-398.
Task Force on Youth Justice. 1996. A Review of the Young Offenders Act and the Youth Justice System in Canada. Ottawa: Report of the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Task Force on Youth Justice for the Standing Committee on Justice and Legal Affairs of the House of Commons.
Teilman, K. and P. Landry. 1981. "Gender Bias in Juvenile Justice". Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 18: 47-80.
Terry, R.M. 1967. "Discrimination in the handling of juvenile offenders by social control agencies." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 4: 218-230.
Thomas, W.I. 1923. The Unadjusted Girl: with cases and standpoint for behaviour analysis. Boston: Little, Brown, & Co.
Thornberry, T. 1973. "Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Sentencing in the Juvenile Justice System". Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 64(March): 90-98.
Tittle, C. R. 1980. Sanctions and Social Deviance. New York: Praeger.
Tomovich, V. A., and D.J. Loree. 1989. "In Search of New Directions: Policing in Niagara Region". Canadian Police College Journal 13: 29-54.
Trojanowicz, Robert, Victor E. Kappeler, and Larry K. Gaines 2002. Community Policing. A Contemporary Perspective. 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
Van Maanen, J. 1973. "Observations on the making of policemen". Human Organization 32(4): 407-418.
Varma, Kimberly N. 2002. Exploring 'youth' in court: An analysis of decision-making in youth court bail hearings. Canadian Journal of Criminology 44 (2): 143-164.
Walker, S. 1992. The Police in America. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Weber, Max. 1947. The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. Trans. A.M. Henderson and Talcott Parsons. New York: Free Press.
Webster, J. 1970. "Police Task and Time Study". Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science 61: 94-100.
Weisheit, Ralph A., David N. Falcone, and L. Edward Wells. 1999. Crime and Policing in Rural and Small-Town America. 2nd ed. Prospect Heights, ILL.: Waveland Press Inc.
Werthman, Carl and Irving Piliavin. 1967. "Gang Members and the Police. In: David J. Bordua, ed." The Police: Six Sociological Essays. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Whitehead, John T., and Steven P. Lab. 1999. Juvenile Justice: An Introduction. 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
Wilbanks, W. 1987. The Myth of a Racist Criminal Justice System. Beaumont, CA: Wadsworth.
Wilson, Q. 1968. Varieties of Police Behavior: The Management of Law and Order in Eight Communities. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Winslow, R.W. 1973. Juvenile Delinquency in a Free Society. 2nd ed. Encino, CA: Dickenson.
Wood, Darryl. 1996. "Philosophy of Traditional Policing vs. Community Policing". The Structure and Role of the Police. (http://www.uaa.alaska.edu/just/just110/police2.html). Accessed on: February 12, 2002.
Worden, Robert E. 1989. "Situational and Attitudinal Explanations of Police Behavior: A Theoretical Reappraisal and Empirical Assessment". Law and Society Review 23(4): 667-711.
Worden, Robert E., and R.L. Shepard. 1996. "Demeanor, crime, and police behaviour: A re-examination of the police services study data." Criminology 34: 61-82.