A One-Day Snapshot of Aboriginal Youth in Custody Across Canada

Chapter 6 - Manitoba (continued)

6.7 Geographic Questions

This next section describes where Aboriginal youth included in the Manitoba Snapshot spent the majority of their time during the two years preceding their current admission, where they committed their offence, and where they plan to relocate. In particular, respondents answered these three questions by indicating if they were in (or plan to be in) a city, town, reserve, or another location.

In Manitoba , the majority of Aboriginal youth in custody on Snapshot day indicated that they were in a city, regardless of the question. However, this "urban" phenomenon is not surprising given that many Canadian cities - especially in the western provinces - have large Aboriginal populations.

6.7.1 Where the Youth Lived Preceding Their Current Admission

Figure 6.6 and Table 6.6 describes where the youth included in the snapshot spent the majority of their time during the two years before their admission. In Manitoba, almost two-thirds (65%) of Aboriginal youth included in the Snapshot lived in a city during the two years preceding their current admission, while 25% lived on an Aboriginal reserve and 10% lived in a town. In comparison to the national picture, a larger proportion of Manitoba youth lived in a city for a majority of time during the two years preceding their current admission (65% versus 53% nationally).

Figure 6.6 Pre-Custody Location

Figure 6.6 - Pre-Custody Location
[Description]

Source:
One-Day Snapshot of Aboriginal Youth in Custody (2001).
Prepared by:
Research and Statistics Division, Department of Justice Canada.

Table 6.6 reports the relationship between age and where the youth spent the majority of their time during the two years before their current admission. In general, older youth were more likely than younger youth to have lived on a reserve during the two years before their current admission, while younger youth were more likely than older youth to have lived in a city.

A larger proportion of those 14-15 (74%) years of age lived in a city for the two years preceding his/her current admission, compared to 65% of the 16 to 17 year olds and 60% of those who were 18 years of age or older. Meanwhile, more than one-quarter (27%) of those who were 18 years or older lived on a reserve during the two years prior to the current admission, followed by 16 to 17 year olds (26%) and 12-13 year olds (17%) (see Table 6.6).

A larger proportion of females than males spent a majority of their time during the two years before their current admission on a reserve (33% versus 23%). Meanwhile, 65% of the males and 67% of the females lived in a city (see Table 6.7).

Examining MSOs reveals no discernible pattern with respect to offence type and where the youth lived for the two years preceding their current admission. Thirty-seven percent of those who lived on a reserve had a crime against the person MSO, compared to 28% of those who lived in a town and 36% of those who lived in a city. A larger proportion of those who lived in a town were found guilty of a property crime (67%), when compared to those who lived on a reserve (49%) and those who lived in a city (47%) (see Table 6.8). However, due to small cell sizes, these results must be interpreted with caution.

As with MSO, a similarly varied pattern emerges with respect to MSC and where the youth spent a majority of their time preceding their current admission. Twenty-seven percent of those who lived in on a reserve were charged with an offence against the person, compared to 29% of those who lived in a city. Meanwhile, 67% of those who lived on a reserve and 41% of those who lived in a city were charged with a property-related offence (see Table 6.9).

Table 6.7a includes specific location names as well as 1996 census data to provide information concerning the proportion of Aboriginal youth from the various locations who were in custody on Snapshot day. Of the 259 youth in the Manitoba Snapshot, more than one-half (N=144 or 56%) lived in Winnipeg during the two years preceding their current admission, followed by Brandon (N=19 or 7%).

However, a slightly different picture emerges when examining the proportion of 12-17 year old Aboriginal youth from each community who were in custody on Snapshot day. Eight youth indicated that they lived in Shamattawa prior to their current admission, representing 9% of the 12-17 year old Aboriginal population in the community. Meanwhile, 19 youth lived in Brandon (6% of the 12-17 year old Aboriginal population in the community) and 6 in Dauphin (4% of the 12-17 year old Aboriginal population in the community).

6.7.2 Where the Offence was Committed/Allegedly Committed

Figure 6.7 and Table 6.6 describes where the Snapshot youth committed or allegedly committed the offence for their current admission. More than two-thirds (67%) of Aboriginal youth committed or allegedly committed the offence for their current admission in a city, compared to 22% on a reserve and 11% in a town.

Figure 6.7 Location where the offence was committed or allegedly committed

Figure 6.7 - Location where the offence was committed or allegedly committed
[Description]

Source:
One-Day Snapshot of Aboriginal Youth in Custody (2001).
Prepared by:
Research and Statistics Division, Department of Justice Canada.

Examining age and where the offence was committed/allegedly committed reveals that younger youth were more likely than older youth to have been in a city. A larger proportion of 14 to 15 year olds (74%) than 16 to 17 year olds (67%) and those 18 years or older (62%) committed or allegedly committed the offence for their current admission in a city. In comparison, a slightly larger proportion of those 18 years of age and older (24%) and 16-17 year olds (23%) committed or allegedly committed their offence on a reserve, compared to 17% of those between 14-15 years of age. Fourteen percent of those 18 years of age and older, 10% of the 16 to 17 year olds, and 9% 14 to 15 year olds committed or allegedly committed their offence in a town (see Table 6.6).

A larger proportion of females than males committed or allegedly committed the offence for their current admission on a reserve (33% versus 20%). Meanwhile, equal proportions of males and females committed or allegedly committed their offence in a city (67% each) (see Table 6.7).

An examination of where the youth committed their most serious offence reveals that, regardless of offence type, Aboriginal youth in Manitoba were most likely to have committed a property-related offence. This finding runs contrary to the national picture, which reveals that those on a reserve were most likely to commit an offence against the person, while youth in a town or city were most likely to have a property-related MSO.

Of those who committed their MSO in a town, the largest proportion (67%) was guilty of a property offence, compared to 47% of the youth who committed a similar offence on a reserve and 48% in a city. Meanwhile, of the youth who committed their MSO in a city, 36% were guilty of a crime against the person, compared to 37% who committed a similar offence on a reserve, and 29% in a town (see table 6.8).

An examination of where the youth on remand were charged reveals that a larger proportion of those who lived in a city were charged with a crime against the person when compared to those charged with a similar offence on a reserve. As with the MSO analysis, this finding contradicts the national picture, which revealed that those on a reserve were most likely to have been charged with a crime against the person.

Of the youth who received their MSC on a reserve, 21% were charged with a crime against the person, while 30% of the youth who lived in a city were charged with a similar offence. Meanwhile, of those who received their MSC on a reserve, 71% were charged with a property offence, compared to 40% who were charged with a similar offence in a city (see table 6.9).

Table 6.7a includes specific location names as well as 1996 census data to provide information concerning the proportion of Aboriginal youth from the various locations who were in custody on Snapshot day. Of the 259 youth in the Manitoba Snapshot, more than one-half (N=145 or 56%) committed/allegedly committed their offence in Winnipeg , followed by Brandon (N=19 or 7%).

However, a slightly different picture emerges when examining the proportion of 12-17 year old Aboriginal youth from each community who were in custody on Snapshot day. Eight youth indicated that they committed/allegedly committed their offence in Shamattawa, representing 9% of the 12-17 year old Aboriginal population in the community. Meanwhile, 19 youth committed/allegedly committed their offence in Brandon (6% of the 12-17 year old Aboriginal population in the community) and 6 in Dauphin and 5 in Swan River (representing 4% of the 12-17 year old population in each community).

6.7.3 Where the Youth Plan to Relocate Upon Release

Figure 6.8 and Table 6.6 describes where the Aboriginal youth in custody on Snapshot day plan to relocate upon release. More than two-thirds (67%) of Aboriginal youth plan to relocate to a city upon release, compared to 21% who plan to relocate to an Aboriginal reserve and 11% to a town.

Figure 6.8 Relocation Plans

Figure 6.8 - Relocation Plans
[Description]

Source:
One-Day Snapshot of Aboriginal Youth in Custody (2001).
Prepared by:
Research and Statistics Division, Department of Justice Canada.

Older youth were slightly more likely than younger youth were to indicate that they plan to relocate to an Aboriginal reserve upon release from custody. Twenty-two percent of those 18 years of age and older and 23% of those 16 to 17 years of age plan to relocate to a reserve, compared to 15% of the 14 to 15 year olds. In comparison, younger youth were more likely than older youth to indicate that they plan to relocate to a city. Three-quarters (75%) of the 14 to 15 year olds plan to relocate to a city, compared to 64% of the 16 to 17 year olds and 66% of those 18 years of age and older (see Table 6.6).

A larger proportion of females than males plan to relocate to a reserve upon release (29% versus 20%). Meanwhile, 67% (each) of the males and females plan to relocate to a city (see Table 6.7).

An examination of MSO and relocation plans reveals no discernible differences. The largest proportion of those planning to relocate to a reserve, town or city had a property crime MSO (50%, 55% and 50%, respectively). Meanwhile, more than one-third of those planning to relocate to a reserve, city or town were guilty of a crime against the person (35%, 36% and 35%, respectively) (see Table 6.8).

A varied pattern emerges when examining relocation plans and most serious charges. A larger proportion of those planning to relocate to a reserve than a city were charged with a property-related crime (71% versus 40%) (see Table 6.9). Meanwhile, 29% of those who plan to relocate to a city had a crime against the person MSC, compared to 38% of those with relocation plans to a town and 27% who plan to relocate to a reserve. However, due to small numbers, these results must be interpreted with caution.

Table 6.7a includes specific location names as well as 1996 census data to provide information concerning the proportion of Aboriginal youth from the various locations who were in custody on Snapshot day. Of the 259 youth in the Manitoba Snapshot, the largest proportion, (N=143 or 55%) plan to relocate to Winnipeg , followed by Brandon (N=23 or 9%).

However, a slightly different picture emerges when examining the proportion of 12-17 year old Aboriginal youth from each community who were in custody on Snapshot day. Seven youth indicated that they plan to relocate to Shamattawa, representing 8% of the 12-17 year old Aboriginal population in each community. Meanwhile, 23 youth plan to relocate to Brandon (4% of the 12-17 year old Aboriginal population in the community) and 8 youth to Dauphin (5% of the 12-17 year old Aboriginal population in the community).

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