Re-Thinking Access to Criminal Justice in Canada: A Critical Review of Needs, Responses and Restorative Justice Initiatives

Bibliography

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Articles/Book Chapters/Presentations

  • Ammar, Douglas B. (2000). "Forgiveness and the Law – A Redemptive Opportunity," 27 Fordham Urban Law Journal 27.
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  • Archibald, Bruce P. (1998). "Fault, Penalty and Proportionality: Connecting Sentencing to Subjective and Objective Standards of Criminal Liability," 40 Criminal Law Quarterly 263.
  • Archibald, Bruce P. (1998). "The Politics of Prosecutorial Discretion: Institutional Structures and the Tensions between Punitive and Restorative Paradigms of Justice," 3 Canadian Criminal Law Review 69.
  • Archibald, Bruce (1999). "A Comprehensive Canadian Approach to Restorative Justice: The Prospects for Structuring Fair Alternative Measures in Response to Crime" in Stuart et al, eds. 520.
  • Ashworth, Andrew (1993). "Some Doubts about Restorative Justice," 4:2 Criminal Law Forum 277.
  • Ashworth, Andrew (2000). "Restorative Justice and Victims' Rights." (March) New Zealand Law Journal 84.
  • Auger, Donald (1997). "Legal Aid, Aboriginal People, and the Legal Problems faced by Persons of Aboriginal Descent in Northern Ontario" in McCamus, Ontario Legal Aid Review 397.
  • Baar, Carl (1997). "Self-Service Justice?" (September) Canadian Lawyer 9.
  • Bacchus, Sandra (1999). "The Role of Victims in the Sentencing Process" in Roberts and Cole, eds. 217.
  • Banks, Cyndi (1999). "Victims in the Village: Aspects of Restorative Justice in Papua New Guinea," 6 International Review of Victimology 377.
  • Barnett, R. (1977). "Restitution: A New Paradigm of Criminal Justice" 87 Ethics 279.
  • Bazemore, Gordon (1999). "Crime Victims, Restorative Justice and the Juvenile Court: Exploring Victim Needs and Involvement in the Response to Youth Crime," 6 International Review of Victimology 295.
  • Bazemore, Gordon and Lode Walgrave (1999). "Restorative Juvenile Justice: In Search of Fundamentals and an Outline for Systemic Reform" in Bazemore and Walgrave, eds. 45.
  • Berzins, Lorraine (1997). "Perspectives on Achieving Satisfying Justice: The Challenge Before Us," 9:3 Interaction 7.
  • Berzins, Lorraine (1997). "Restorative Justice on the Eve of a New Century: The Need for Social Context and a New Imagination" in Healy and Dumont, eds. 207.
  • Blakely, Curtis R. and Vic W. Bumphus (1999). "American Criminal Justice Philosophy: What's Old-What's New?" 63 Federal Probation 62.
  • Blankenburg, Erhard (1993). "Private Insurance and the Historical "Waves" of Legal Aid," 13 Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice 185.
  • Blazer, Michael (1991). "The Community Legal Clinic Movement in Ontario: Practice and Theory, Means and Ends," 7 Journal of Law and Society 49.
  • Bogart, William, Colin Meredith, and Danielle Chandler (1997). "Current Utilization Patterns and Unmet Legal Needs" in McCamus, Ontario Legal Aid Review 313.
  • Boyer, Yvonne (1999) "Community Based Justice Initiatives of Saskatoon Tribal Council" (Canadian Institute for the Administration of Justice Conference) http://www.ciaj-icaj.ca/sentencing/boyer.html (accessed December 1, 2000).
  • Boyle, Christine (1993). "Review of Federal/Provincial/Territorial Working Group of Attorneys General Officials on Gender Equality in the Canadian Justice System, Gender Equality in the Canadian Justice System (Ottawa: Department of Justice, 1992) in 13 Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice 322.
  • Bourrie, Mark (2001). "ADR big part of new youth justice bill," Law Times (March 12) 13.
  • Braithwaite, John (1992). "Poverty, Power, and White-Collar Crime" in Schlegel and Weisburd, eds. 82.
  • Braithwaite, John (1999a). "Crime, Shame and Reintegration" (Canadian Institute for the Administration of Justice Conference ) http://www.ciaj-icaj.ca/sentencing/braithwaite.html (accessed December 1, 2000).
  • Braithwaite, John (1999b). "A Future Where Punishment is Marginalized: Realistic or Utopian?" 46 UCLA L. Rev. 1727.
  • Braithwaite, John and Christine Parker (1999). "Restorative Justice is Republican Justice" in Bazemore and Walgrave, eds. 103.
  • Braithwaite, John (2000). "Restorative Justice and Social Change," 63 Saskatchewan Law Review 184.
  • Bregman, Patti (1997). "Special Legal Needs of People with Mental Disabilities" in McCamus, Ontario Legal Aid Review 373.
  • Burt, Laura (1993). "The Battered Woman Syndrome and the Plea of Self-defence: Can the Victim and the Accused be Strangers? A Note on R. v Eyapaise," 27:1 University of British Columbia Law Review 93.
  • Burt, Sandra (1992). "What's Fair? Changing Feminist Perceptions of Justice in English Canada" 12 Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice 337.
  • Bussman, Kai-D. (1992). "Morality, Symbolism, and Criminal Law: Chances and Limits of Mediation Programs" in Messmer and Otto, eds. 317.
  • Cahn, Naomi (2000). "Policing Women: Moral Arguments and the Dilemmas of Criminalization" 49 DePaul Law Review 817.
  • Cain, Maureen and Kalman Kulcsar (1981-82). "Thinking Disputes: An Essay on the Origins of the Dispute Industry," 16:3 Law and Society Review 375.
  • Cappelletti, Mauro and Bryant Garth (1978). "Access to Justice: the Newest Wave in the Worldwide Movement to Make Rights Effective," 27 Buffalo Law Review 181.
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  • Cooper, Cleve and Jharna Chatterjee (1999) "Punishment at the Turn of the Century: The RCMP Perspective" (Canadian Institute for the Administration of Justice Conference) http://www.ciaj-icag.ca/sentencing/Cooper.html (accessed December 1, 2000).
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  • Enright, Robert D. and Bruce A. Kittle (2000). "Forgiveness in Psychology and Law: The Meeting of Moral Development and Restorative Justice," 27 Fordham Urban Law Journal 1621.
  • Ewart, Douglas (1997). "Hard Caps; Hard Choices: A Systemic Model for Legal Aid," Zemans, Monahan and Thomas, eds. 7.
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  • Griffiths, Curt Taylor (1999). "The Victims of Crime and Restorative Justice: The Canadian Experience," 6 International Review of Victimology 279.
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  • Hudson, Barbara (1998). "Mitigation for Socially Deprived Offenders" in von Hirsch and Ashworth, eds.205.
  • Hudson, Barbara (1998). "Doing Justice to Difference" in Ashworth and Wasik, eds. 223.
  • Hughes, Patricia (1997). "Domestic Legal Aid: The Public Means of Redress for Private Matters," 47 UNB Law Journal 119.
  • Hughes, Patricia (2000). "New Brunswick (Minister of Health and Community Services) v. G.(J.): En Route to More Equitable Access to the Legal System?" 15 Journal of Law & Social Policy 93.
  • Hutton, Neil and Cyrus Tata (2000). "The Judicial Role in the 'Balance' Between Two Visions of Justice in Sentencing" in Doran and Jackson, eds. 307.
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  • Immarigeon, Russ (1999). "Restorative Justice, Juvenile Offenders and Crime Victims: A Review of the Literature" in Bazemore and Walgrave, eds. 305.
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  • Kaas, Glenn M. (2000). "Restorative Justice: A New Paradigm for the Prosecutor (A View from Hartford Community Court," 34 Prosecutor 31.
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  • Kessler-Harris, Alice (1999). "From Retribution to Restoration," 16:6 The Women's Review of Books 15.
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  • Lacey, Nicola (1998). "Punishment and Community" in von Hirsch and Ashworth, eds.394.
  • Lancaster, Phil (1994). "Omaninomowayak: Anishinaabe Justice in Muskrat Dam First Nation," 14 Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice 331.
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  • LaPrairie, Carol (1999). "Some Reflections on New Criminal Justice Policies in Canada: Restorative Justice, Alternative Measures and Conditional Sentences," 32:2 Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology 139.
  • LaPrairie, Carol (1999). "Sentencing Aboriginal Offenders: Some Critical Issues" in Roberts and Cole, eds.. 173.
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  • Price, Marty (1995-96). "A Victim Offender Mediation Model of Neutrality," 7 VOMA Quarterly http://www.vorp.com/~vorp/articles/neutral.html (accessed January 2, 2001).
  • Price, Marty (1996). "Victim-Offender Mediation: The State of the Art" 7 VOMA Quarterly: http://www.vorp.com/~vorp/articles/art.html (accessed January 2, 2001).
  • Price, Marty (1997). "Can Mediation Produce Justice? A Restorative Justice Discussion for Mediators," ADR Report. http://www.vorp.com/articles/justice.html (accessed January 2, 2001).
  • Quigley, Tim (1999). "Has the Role of Judges in Sentencing Changed … Or Should It?" (Canadian Institute for the Administration of Justice Conference) http://www/ciaj-icaj/ca/sentencing/quigley.html (accessed December 1, 2000).
  • Roach, Kent (1996). "Systemic Racism and Criminal Justice Policy," 15 Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice 236.
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  • Roach, Kent and Jonathan Rudin (2000). "Glaudue: The Judicial and Political Reception of a Promising Decision," 42 Canadian. Journal of Criminology 355.
  • Ross, Rupert (1995). " Restorative Justice: Exploring the Aboriginal Paradigm," 59 Saskatchewan Law Review 431.
  • Rudin, Jonathan (1997). "Legal Aid Needs of Aboriginal People in Urban Areas and on Southern Reserves" in McCamus, Ontario Legal Aid Review 441.
  • Rudin, Jonathan (1999). "From Punishment to Healing" (Canadian Institute for the Administration of Justice Conference) http://www.ciaj-icaj.ca/sentencing/rudin.html (accessed December 1, 2000).
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  • Spotton, Noelle (1998). "Aboriginal Legal Services of Toronto and the Legal Aid Service Needs of Metropolitan Toronto Aboriginal Community," 16 Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice 296.
  • Street, Laurence (1998). "Editorial: the Mediation Evolution – Its Moral Vallidity and Social Origin," 9 Australian Dispute Resolution Journal 237.
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  • Thomas, Phil, (1990). "Access to Justice: The Thatcher Legacy," 10 Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice 521.
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  • Tonry, M. (1994). "Editorial: Racial Disparities in Courts and Prisons," 4 Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health 158.
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  • Umbreit, Mark S. (1999). "Avoiding the Marginalization and 'McDonaldization' of Victim-Offender Mediation: A Case Study iin Moving Toward the Mainstream," in Bazemore and Walgrave, eds. 213.
  • Umbreit, Mark S. et al. (1999). "Victims of Severe Violence Meet the Offender: Restorative Justice Through Dialogue," 6 International Review of Victimology 321.
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Reports/Discussion Papers

  • Addario, Lisa (1998). Getting a Foot in the Door: Women, Civil Legal Aid and Access to Justice. Ottawa: Status of Women Canada.
  • American Bar Association (1994). "Endorsement of Victim-Offender Mediation/Dialogue Programs" (1994). http://www.abanet.org/scripts/searchmore.asp (accessed March 26, 2001).
  • Bain, Penny, Shelley Chrest and Marina Morrow (2000). Access to Justice Denied: Women and Legal Aid in British Columbia. Vancouver: Women's Access to Legal Aid Coalition.
  • Bazemore, Gordon and Mark Umbreit (1999) Conferences, Circles, Boards, and Mediations: Restorative Justice and Citizen Involvement in the Response to Youth Crime. Prepared for the Balanced and Restorative Justice Project (Funded by Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice) http://ssw.che.umn.edu/rjp/Resurces/Documents/bazumb99.PDF (accessed January 2, 2001).
  • Belgrave, J. (1995). Restorative Justice. (Wellington, NZ: New Zealand Ministry of Justice).
  • Bonta James, Suzanne Wallace-Capretta and Jennifer Rooney (1998) Restorative Justice: An Evaluation of the Restorative Resolutions Project. Solicitor General Canada. http://www.sgc.gc.ca/epub/corr/e199810b/e199810b.htm (accessed December 1, 2000).
  • British Columbia Ministry of the Attorney General (1998). A Restorative Justice Framework.
  • Canadian Association of Elizabeth Fry Societies (1999). Reforming Criminal Code Defences: Provocation, Self-Defence and Defence of Property. Ottawa: Canadian Association of Elizabeth Fry Societies.
  • Canadian Sentencing Commission (1987). Sentencing Reform: A Canadian Approach. Ottawa: Ministry of Supply and Services.
  • Commission on Systemic Racism in the Ontario Criminal Justice System (1995). Report of the Commission on Systemic Racism in the Ontario Criminal Justice System. Toronto: Queen's Printer for Ontario.
  • Commission of Inquiry into Certain Events at the Prison for Women in Kingston (1996). Ottawa: Public Works and Government Services Canada.
  • Community Law Reform Committee(Australian Capital Territory) Report No. 6: Victims of Crime (1993) http://www.dpa/act.gov.au/ag/Reports/CLRC/r6/Report6.html (accessed December 1, 2000).
  • Currie, A. (with George Kiefl) (1994), Ethnocultural Groups and the Justice System in Canada: A Review of the Issues. Department of Justice Canada. (accessed December 1, 2000).
  • Currie, J. (1995). Ethnocultural Minority Women, Spousal Assault, and Barriers to Accessing and Problems in Using the Justice System: A Review of the Literature. Ottawa: Department of Justice.
  • Currie, Albert (2000). "Riding the Third Wave: Rethinking Criminal Legal Aid Within an Access to Justice Framework." Ottawa: Department of Justice.
  • Department of Justice Canada (2000) The Changing Face of Conditional Sentencing: Symposium Proceedings. Symposium held on 27 May 2000.
  • Department of Justice Canada (2001) Expanding Horizons: Rethinking Access to Justice in Canada: Proceedings of a National Symposium. Symposium held on 31 March 2000.
  • Etherington, Brian (1991). Preserving Identity by Having Many Identities: A Report on Multiculturalism and Access to Justice. Ottawa: Department of Justice
  • Etherington, Brian (1994). Review of Multiculturalism and Justice Issues: A Framework for Addressing Reform. Ottawa: Department of Justice.
  • Hanks, Peter (1987). Social Indicators and the Delivery of Legal Services. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Services.
  • HM Inspectorate of Probation (2000). The Victim Perspective: Ensuring the Victim Matters London, U.K.: Home Office.
  • LaPrairie, Carol (1988). Native Criminal Justice Programs: An Overview. Ottawa: Department of Justice.
  • LaPrairie, Carol (1998). Conditional Sentence Orders By Province and Territory: Final Report. Ottawa: Department of Justice.
  • Law Commission of Canada (1999). From Restorative Justice to Transformative Justice: Discussion Paper. Ottawa: Law Commission of Canada.
  • Llewellyn, Jennifer and Robert Howse (1998). Restorative Justice - A Conceptual Framework. Law Commission of Canada. http://www.lcc.gc.ca/en/papers/howse.html (accessed December 1, 2000).
  • Manitoba (1991). Reportof the Aboriginal Justice Inquiry of Manitoba. Winnipeg: Government of Manitoba.
  • Marshall, Tony F. (1998). Restorative Justice: An Overview/. Center for Restorative Justice & Mediation. http://ssw/che/umn/edu/rjp/Resources/Documents/bmar98a.PDF (accessed January 2, 2001).
  • McCamus, John D., Chair (1997). A Blueprint for Publicly Funded Legal Services, 3 vols. Toronto: Report of the Ontario Legal Aid Review.
  • Miedema, Baukje and Sandra Wachholz (1998). A Complex Web: Access to Justice for Abused Immigrant Women in New Brunswick. Ottawa: Status of Women Canada.
  • Miedema, Baukje (1997). Barriers and Strategies: How to Improve Services for Abused Immigrant Women in New Brunswick. (Research Report, Family Violence in Immigrant Communities in New Brunswick: unpublished).
  • National Council of Welfare (1995). Legal Aid and the Poor: A Report. Ottawa: National Council of Welfare.
  • National Council of Welfare (2000). Justice and the Poor. Ottawa: National Council of Welfare.
  • National Institute ofJustice(1998). Women and Criminal Justice – A Twenty-Year Update: Special Report. Rockville, MD: National Institute of Justice.
  • Nova Scotia Department of Justice (1998). Restorative Justice: A Program for Nova Scotia. Halifax: Nova Scotia Department of Justice.
  • Office for Victims of Crime (U.S. Department of Justice), The Restorative Justice and Mediation Collection http://www.ojp.usdog.gov/ovc/infores/restorative_justice/bulletin1/welcome.html (accessed December 1, 2000).
  • Criminal Justice Review Committee (1999). Report of the Criminal Justice Review Committee (1999) Quicklaw Database LNCR, Doc.154.
  • Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1996). Bridging the Cultural Divide. Ottawa: Ministry of Supply and Services.
  • Toronto Star (2001). "Closed Doors: Justice by Plea Bargain." March 10, 2001, at A1 ff.
  • Umbreit, Mark S. (2000). "Family Group Conferencing: Implications for Crime Victims," (Office for Victimsof Crime, U.S. Department of Justice) http://www.ojp.usdog.gov/ovc/infores/restorative_justice/96523-family_group/welcome.html (accessed December 1, 2000).
  • "Victims' Groups" (1999). Submission to the Alberta Summit on Justice http://www/gov.ab.ca/justicesummit/consult/crep12.htm (accessed December 1, 2000).
  • Waller, Irvin (1988). Role of Victim in Sentencing and Related Processes. Ottawa:Canadian Sentencing Commission Research Reports.
  • Zemans, Frederick H. and Patrick J. Monahan (1997). From Crisis to Reform: A New Legal Aid Plan for Ontario. North York, Ont: York University Centre for Public law and Public Policy.
  • Zemans, Frederick H., Patrick J. Monahan and Aneurin Thomas, eds. (1997). A New Legal Aid Plan for Ontario: Background Papers. North York, Ont: York University Centre for Public Law and Public Policy.
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