Managing Contact Difficulties: A Child-Centred Approach
 For simplicity, in this paper divorce is synonymous with separation. The term is used to mean parents living apart rather than the parents' legal status. From the child's perspective, the fact that parents no longer live together is more significant than the actual legal status.
 These countries are considered to have an approach to family law similar to that of Canada.
 The Glossary provides an explanation of contact as well as other terms used in this paper.
 Two dominant formulations are described in the literature (Gardner, 1992; Kelly and Johnston, 2001) and discussed in detail in this chapter. Other writers (Baris, et al., 2001; Birks, 1998; Blaikie, 2001; Boshier, 2001; Cartwright, 1993; Darnall, 1998; Hobbs, 2002; Kopetski, 1998; Lowenstein, 1998; Mercer and Kline Pruett, 2001; Pam and Pearson, 1998; Rand, 1997; Rybicki, undated; Turkat, 1997) discuss aspects of the Gardner or Kelly and Johnston formulations.
 This is particularly true given Gardner's view that PAS is an example of folie à deux (refer to Glossary) and the American Psychiatric Association's conclusion that such diagnoses are rare.
 In addition to ideas culled from clinical practices and key informants, we acknowledge suggestions based on the writing of Johnston, 2001; Johnston, in press; Nicholson, 2002; Wall et al., 2002; and Warshak, 2000a.
 Research demonstrates that interventions introduced prior to parents living apart or early in the separation process have the potential to minimize the likelihood of contact difficulties (Freeman, 1995).
 Refer to the Glossary for a brief discussion of the Standard for Expert Social Science Testimony.
 The treatment of evidence based on social science research should be carefully considered. Mullane (1998) suggests that the judiciary needs to decide whether research findings are in fact evidence or more appropriately considered
"authority"(refer also to Zirogiannis, 2001).
 These suggestions are based on clinical experience, ideas proposed by key informants and the American Bar Association (Ramsey, 2000), Mullane (1998), Sullivan and Kelly (2001), and Williams ( 2001).
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