- Footnote 1
Generally the term “family proceedings” is used in this paper to refer to civil proceedings involving separated or divorced parents, and are distinguished from “child protection” proceedings that involve a child protection agency and parents. In many locales in Canada, both types of proceedings are within the jurisdiction of a Family Court (which may be either a superior court or a provincial court.)
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- Footnote 2
As will be further discussed in this paper, women and men report being victims of intimate partner violence in roughly equal numbers. However, women are much more likely to be subject to “coercive controlling violence” and are more likely to be the primary caregiver of their children. They are therefore more likely to face the possibility of having their children apprehended in the event that the CPA has concerns about their ability to protect them from exposure to violence.
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- Footnote 3
The Honourable Donna Martinson and Dr. Margaret Jackson, “Judicial Leadership and Intimate Partner Violence Cases – Judges Can Make a Difference.” National Judicial Institute, 2012.
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- Footnote 4
See, for example, the Report of the BC Representative for Children and Youth, Honouring Kaitlynne, Max and Cordon: Make Their Voices Heard Now (2012)
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- Footnote 5
For example, Catholic Children’s Aid Society of Hamilton, Jewish Child and Family Services (Toronto), and Dilico Anishinabek Family Care in northern Ontario. Manitoba reorganized its child protection system in 2003 - 2005 to transfer responsibility for a significant number of cases to Aboriginal agencies, through the Aboriginal Justice Inquiry-Child Welfare Initiative (AJI-CWI). See http://www.aji-cwi.mb.ca/eng/phasesTimelines.html.
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- Footnote 6
Birnbaum & Bala, “Toward the Differentiation of High-Conflict Families: An Analysis of Social Science Research and Canadian Case Law” (2010) 48:3 Fam Ct Rev 403 at 404.
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- Footnote 7
CAS of Toronto v LH, 2008 ONCJ 5855, at para. 210, citing Tina Hotton, Childhood Aggression and Exposure to Violence in the Home (Ottawa: Statistics Canada and Department of Justice Canada, 2003); see also e.g Ayoub, Deutsch & Maraganore, “Emotional Distress in Children of High-Conflict Divorce: The Impact of Marital Conflict and Violence” (1999) 37:3 Fam Ct Rev 297 at 298.
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- Footnote 8
See e.g. Jaffe, Johnston, Crooks & Bala, "Custody Disputes Involving Allegations of Intimate Partner Violence: The Need for Differentiated Approaches to Parenting Plans" (2008) 46 Family Court Review 500-522.
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- Footnote 9
Austin & Drozd, “Intimate Partner Violence and Child Custody Evaluation, Part I: Theoretical Framework, Forensic Model, and Assessment Issues.” (2012) 9 Journal of Child Custody 250-309, at 262
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- Footnote 10
Austin & Drozd (2012) at 274.
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- Footnote 11
Austin & Drodz (2012) at 279.
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- Footnote 12
Birnbaum & Bala, “Toward the Differentiation of High-Conflict Families: An Analysis of Social Science Research and Canadian Case Law” (2010) 48:3 Fam Ct Rev 403, at 412.
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- Footnote 13
See CAS Waterloo v MJD,  OJ 5877 (SC) where a primary care-giver mother made threats against the father and once threatened him with a knife but was awarded custody.
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- Footnote 14
There are cases where there is significant parental disagreement and litigation over economic issues, but the parents are able to maintain a good co-parenting relationship; these situations are not the subject of this paper.
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- Footnote 15
See e.g. Fidler, Bala, Saini, A Differential Approach to Children Resisting Post-separation Contact: A Guide for Legal & Mental Professionals (Oxford University Press, New York, 2012); and Fidler & Bala, “Children Resisting Post-separation Contact With A Parent: Concepts, Controversies And Conundrums” (2010) 48 Family Court Review 10-47. The use of the concepts of parental alienation and alienating parental behaviours in this paper is not an endorsement of parental alienation syndrome, a concept advanced by some advocates, but not adopted by the American Psychological Association as an accepted mental disorder.
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- Footnote 16
See e.g. Children’s Aid Society of the Regional Municipality of Waterloo v BA, 2005 ONCJ 220,  OJ 2844, Kent J.; Re J.D. (1978), 8 R.F.L. (2d) 209 (Ont. Prov. Ct.); and Re Fortowsky,  O.W.N. 235, 23 D.L.R. (2d) 569 (Ont.C.A.).
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- Footnote 17
See e.g. Ontario Children’s Law Reform Act, s. 25(4), in force 2006; and British Columbia, Family Law Act, ss. 37(2)(g) & (h) and 38, in force 2013.
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- Footnote 18
Private members Bill C-252, First session, 39th Parliament,, enacted as S.C 2007, c. 14, added s. 17(5.1) to the Divorce Act to provide that in the case of a former spouse who is terminally ill or in critical condition, the court shall make a variation order in respect of access that is in the best interests of the child.
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- Footnote 19
This reform was recommended in 1996 in the Special Parliamentary Joint Committee Report, For the Sake of the Children and appeared in Bill C-22 (2003), which was not enacted.
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- Footnote 20
Reports of sexual abuse made in the context of parental separation have a much higher rate of being unfounded or classified by CAS workers as being fabricated than reports made in other contexts, though of course they must be investigated and some are founded; see Bala, Mitnick, Trocmé & Houston, “Sexual Abuse Allegations and Parental Separation: Smokescreen or Fire?” (2007) 13 Journal of Family Studies 26-56.
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- Footnote 21
See Ontario Child Welfare Eligibility Spectrum (2006), Section 3, Scale 2 – Child Exposure to Adult Conflict. The Welfare Eligibility Spectrum is a document that provides detailed guidance for child protection workers in Ontario about investigations of child abuse and neglect, and for appropriate responses in different situations.
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- Footnote 22
Catholic Children’s Aid Society of Toronto v MR,  OJ 4385, at para 11.
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- Footnote 23
Children’s Aid Society of the Regional Municipality of Waterloo v MJD,  OJ No 5877, 2002 CarswellOnt 6133 (Ont Sup Ct).
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- Footnote 24
Ontario Child and Family Services Act, s. 37(2)(f)-(g)
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- Footnote 25
For example, legal aid is available to victims of violence in family law cases in Ontario (see http://www.legalaid.on.ca/en/getting/type_domesticviolence.asp) and in British Columbia in cases of IPV and high conflict (see http://www.lss.bc.ca/legal_aid/familyIssues.php).
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- Footnote 26
See discussion of legal aid and appointment of counsel below.
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- Footnote 27
See e.g. Birnbaum, Bala & Bertrand, “The Rise of Self-Representation in Canada’s Family Courts: The Complex Picture Revealed in Surveys of Judges, Lawyers and Litigants” (2013), 91 Canadian Bar Review 67-96. The Criminal Code provides for the appointment of counsel to conduct the cross-examination of witnesses, which can prevent the accused in an IPV case from personally cross-examining the victim (s. 486.3(2)); there is no corresponding provision in family law statutes.
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- Footnote 28
See e.g. Porter v McLennan, 2011 ONCJ 278, where a case conference was required before a motion for interim relief for a father, despite the fact that the mother had excluded the “stay at home dad” from the matrimonial home.
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- Footnote 29
Clement v. Clement  O.J. 653. See also P.A.C. v W.D.C.,  A.J. 74 (C.A.) where the Alberta Court of Appeal upheld a lower court decision to award interim custody to the father, due to a concern about the mother alienating the children from the father.
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- Footnote 30
Bala & Ringseis, “Review of the Yukon Family Violence Prevention Act,” (for Yukon Territorial government on contract with Canadian Research Institute for Law & the Family) (July 2002).
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- Footnote 31
The Family Homes on Reserves and Matrimonial Interests or Rights Act S.C. 2013, chap 20, Royal Assent on June 19, 2013 but not yet in force, provides that in situations of family violence on a reserve, a court can make an emergency protection order to, among other things, order that the applicant’s conjugal partner temporarily vacate the home.
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- Footnote 32
For a discussion of the issues related to high-conflict separations and assessment reports, see Fidler, Bala, Birnbaum & Kavassalis, Challenging Issues In Child Custody Assessments: A Guide For Legal And Mental Health Professionals (Toronto: Carswell, 2008).
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- Footnote 33
Bala & Leschied, “Court-Ordered Assessments In Ontario Child Welfare Cases: Review And Recommendations For Reform” (2008) 24 Canadian Journal of Family Law 1-56.
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- Footnote 34
Shahnaz Rahman & Laura Track, Troubling Assessments: Custody and Access Reports and their Equality Implications for BC Women (Vancouver: West Coast LEAF, 2012); and National Council of Juvenile and Family court Judges, Navigating Custody and Visitation Evaluations in Cases with Intimate Partner Violence: A Judge’s Guide (2004), online: http://www.afccnet.org/Portals/0/PublicDocuments/ProfessionalResources/BenchGuide.pdf
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- Footnote 35
CAS Ottawa v PY,  OJ 1639 (Ont Sup Ct).
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- Footnote 36
See Kaplanis v Kaplanis,  OJ 275, 194 OAC 106, 249 DLR (4th) 620 at para 2 in which Weiler JA ruled that the trial judge had exceeded her jurisdiction by ordering counselling. Despite this ruling, judges are still prepared to order that parents attend parenting classes, anger management or counselling as a condition of exercising custody or access rights.
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- Footnote 37
Florito v Wiggins, 2011 ONSC 1868, 2011 CarswellOnt 5622, W.C. v C.E., 2010 ONSC 3575,  OJ 2738, Filaber v Filaber,  OJ 4449; and J.K.L. v N.C.S.,  OJ No 2115.
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- Footnote 38
L.M. v. T.M.,  N.B.J. 376 (Q.B.)
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- Footnote 39
 OJ No 1418, 37 RFL (5th) 381 (Ont Sup Ct) Henderson J.
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- Footnote 40
We note that the there is significant variation in the ability of agencies and third party service providers to provide this kind of assistance to families.
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- Footnote 41
Mary Rella, BA Dip C.S. “Therapeutic Access: From Supervising Access to Building Parent-Child Relationships.” IMPrint: The Newsletter of Infant Mental Health Promotion, Volume 47, Winter 2006-07, revised April 2010. (excerpts available at http://www.oacas.org/pubs/oacas/journal/2010Fall/access.html)
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- Footnote 42
For a statutory provision allowing for an order for police enforcement, see e.g. Ontario, Children’s Law Reform Act, s. 36; for a discussion of the inherent authority of courts to direct police enforcement, see e.g Allen v. Grenier,  O.J. 1198, 145 D.L.R. (4th) 286 (Gen. Div.).
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- Footnote 43
Allen v. Grenier,  O.J. 1198, 145 D.L.R. (4th) 286 (Gen. Div.).
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- Footnote 44
2011 ONSC 1868. The parens patriae [Latin for parent of the country] jurisdiction of superior courts in Canada refers to the inherent authority of these judges to make orders to protect the interests of children in situations where there is no legislation that addresses a problem or prohibits court action. It is based on the historic jurisdiction of the English Chancery. It would seem that judges in Ontario are somewhat more inclined to use and expand this historic jurisdiction than judges elsewhere, and in Quebec there is some doubt as to whether the Superior Court has the same historic jurisdiction.
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- Footnote 45
See Aliamisse O Mundulai, “Stretching the Boundaries in Child Access, Custody and Guardianship in Canada, (2005) 21 Can J Fam L 267 at 269; Bahjan v Bahjan, 2010 ONCA 714, 104 OR (3d) 368, Weiler JA; and AA v BB, 2007 ONCA 2,  OJ 2, 83 OR (3d) 561.
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- Footnote 46
In Ontario, the Child and Family Services Act s. 57.1 allows a court in a child protection proceeding to make a custody order under the provincial family statute in favour of a parent; this usually requires the consent of the agency. As discussed earlier, ordinarily orders under child protection statutes take precedence over orders under family law, but if the CPA agrees to a stay of the protection proceeding or the making of a custody order, this family order will be given effect.
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- Footnote 47
(1993), 50 R.F.L. (3d) 171 at 181‑183 (N.S.C.A.); see also E.H. v. T.G. (1995), 18 R.F.L. (4th) 21 (N.S.C.A.); and B.P.M. v. B.L.D.E.M. (1992), 42 R.F.L. (3d) 349 at 359‑60 (Ont. C.A.).
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- Footnote 48
For a case where a mother with a history of drug use and threatening behaviour was given access only with the permission of the custodial parent, see McGrath v. Thomsen (2000), 11 R.F.L. (5th) 174 (B.C.C.A.).
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- Footnote 49
See e.g. Salehi v. Haghighi, 2011 ONCJ 731; C.D. v. J.B.,  A.Q. 181, Parker v. Hall,  O.J. 756 (Ont. Prov. Ct.) and Alexander v. Creary (1995), 14 R.F.L. (4th) 311 (Ont. Prov. Ct.) and; see also Matheson v. Sabourin,  O.J. 991 where Hardman Prov. J. cited literature on the effects of having witnessed spousal violence on children, apparently without this literature having been introduced by a witness.
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- Footnote 50
J.M. v. A.L.,  N.S.J. No. 34 (Fam. Ct.)
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- Footnote 51
2012 NSCA 48, at para. 39
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- Footnote 52
2005 NSSC 256, at para 24-25.
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- Footnote 53
See e.g Rogerson v Tessaro  OJ 1825 (C.A.); Pettenuzzo-Deschene v. Deschene 2007 CarswellOnt 5095, 40 RFL (6th) 681( SCJ); C.J.B. v. R.C.J.,  BCJ 212 (BCSC); T.S. v. A.V.T.,  AJ 293 (ABQB); Savage v. Savage,  OJ 312 (S.C.J.); Polsfut v. Polsfut,  SJ (SKQB); and Faber v Gallianco, 2012 ONSC 764.
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- Footnote 54
See Fidler, Bala, Saini, A Differential Approach to Children Resisting Postseparation Contact: A Guide for Legal & Mental Professionals (Oxford University Press, New York, 2012); and Fidler & Bala, “Children Resisting Post-separation Contact With A Parent: Concepts, Controversies And Conundrums “(2010) 48 Family Court Review 10-47.
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- Footnote 55
See discussion below.
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- Footnote 56
See e.g. Bailey v. Bailey  OJ 4891; Roda v. Roda  OJ 3786 (SCJ); and El-Murr v. Kiameh  OJ 1521 (OCJ)
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- Footnote 57
See e.g. P. (J.E.) v. W. (H.J.)(1987), 11 R.F.L. (3d) 136 (Sask. Q.B ) where a six year old girl had an aversion towards her father because of the mother's hostility to him. The mother was opposed to access, despite mediation efforts. The court refused to order access, at least until "the child is considerably older". See also R.G.A. v K.A.C, 2011 Carswell Ont 4462 (OCJ) where the court found that the custodial mother had been engaging in alienating conduct, but concluded that since the father was not seeking custody, there was no realistic way to enforce access, and declined to order access.
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- Footnote 58
See, for example, s. 4(1) and s. 4(6) of Alberta, Child, Youth and Family Enhancement Act, RSA 2000, c C-12 and ss. 14(1), (3) & (6) of British Columbia, Child, Family and Community Service Act, RSBC 1996, c 46.
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- Footnote 59
In 2008, 34% of all substantiated investigations identified exposure to intimate partner violence as the primary category of maltreatment (an estimated 29,259 cases or 4.86 investigations per 1,000 children): Nico Trocmé et al., Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2008.(Public Health Agency of Canada, 2011).
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- Footnote 60
Family and Children's Services of St. Thomas and Elgin County v F(W), 2003 CanLII 54117 (ON CJ)
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- Footnote 61
FH v McDougall, 2008 SCC 53,  3 SCR 41, citing a British child protection case, In re B (Children),  3 WLR 1,  UKHL 35; DCW (PEI) v AH and JD, 2009 PECA 19; Nova Scotia (Community Services) v CM, 2011 NSSC 112 ; SJB et al v Child and Family All Nations Coordinated Response Network, 2009 MBQB 12 ; PCI v Saskatchewan (Social Services), 2009 SKQB 335; Catholic Children's Aid Society of Metropolitan v AD (1994), 1 RFL (4th) 268 (Ont Ct Gen Div).
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- Footnote 62
For example, C.L.M. v. D.G.W.,  A.J. No. 329, 2004 ABCA 112. For the opposing view, see Children’s Aid Society of Niagara Region v. D.M.,  O.J. No. 1421 (Sup.Ct.)
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- Footnote 63
See, for example, Ontario Child and Family Services Act, RSO 1990, c C.11, s 5
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- Footnote 64
Children’s Aid Society Region of Halton v. O.(J.) 2013 ONCJ 191, 2013 O.J. 1691at par.29
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- Footnote 65
For a discussion of the jurisprudence in these cases, particularly regarding the need for expert evidence demonstrating the child would be traumatized by testifying, see Children’s Aid Society Region of Halton v. O.(J.), supra.
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- Footnote 66
Children's Aid Society of Hamilton-Wentworth v KR and CW, (2001) OJ No 5754; Alberta (Child, Youth and Family Enhancement Act, Director) v. C.M. and D.L. (2005), 23 R.F.L. (6th) 10; Newfoundland and Labrador (Manager of Child, Youth and Family Services) v. A.C.  N.J. No. 54.
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- Footnote 67
B. (R.) v. Children’s Aid Society of Metropolitan Toronto, 1995 CanLII 115 (SCC) ,  1 S.C.R. 315; New Brunswick (Minister of Health and Community Services) v. G. (J.), 1999 CanLII 653 (SCC) ,  3 S.C.R. 46.
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- Footnote 68
Chatham-Kent Children's Services v JK,  OJ No 5423. While courts will be reluctant to exclude evidence in a child protection proceeding, in some contexts judges do take account of the Charter to exclude evidence that might be considered unreliable : see e.g. C.A.S of Toronto v D.M. ,  O.J. 4425 (Ct. J.); and Catholic C.A.S. of Toronto v J.L.,  O.J. 1722 (Ct.J.), per Jones J.
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- Footnote 69
Chatham-Kent Children's Services v JK, supra at par. 63.
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- Footnote 70
International Institute for Child Rights and Development, University of Victoria. Family Group Conferencing Literature Review. Report prepared for the Child and Youth Officer for British Columbia, October 2005. http://www.rcybc.ca/groups/Project%20Reports/fgc_lit_review.pdf
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- Footnote 71
See, for example, Angela Cameron, “Sentencing Circles and Intimate Violence: A Canadian Feminist Perspective” (2006) 18:2 Canadian Journal of Women and the Law 479-512.
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- Footnote 72
Problem-solving in Canada’s Courtrooms: A Guide to Therapeutic Justice. National Judicial Institute, 2011, p.30; Kierstead, Shelley M., “Therapeutic Jurisprudence and Child Protection” (December 30, 2011). Barry Law Review, Vol. 17, No. 1, p. 31, 2011; Osgoode CLPE Research Paper No. 34/2012
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- Footnote 73
See Children’s Aid Society Region of Halton v. O.(J.), supra at par. 43.
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- Footnote 74
The principle that an acquittal in a criminal prosecution will not bar a civil action arising from the same circumstances is discussed in Polgrain Estate v. Toronto East General Hospital,  O.J. No. 2092 (CA)
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- Footnote 75
See e.g. Bala, Birnbaum & Bertrand, “Controversy about the Role Children’s Lawyers: Advocate or Best Interests Guardian? Comparing Attitudes & Practices in Alberta & Ontario – Two Provinces with Different Policies” (accepted for Oct 2013), Family Court Review.
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- Footnote 76
Where the evidence does not support a conviction or where a breach of the Charter is proven and the evidence is excluded under s. 24(2) of the Charter, withdrawal of the charge or an acquittal is, of course, the appropriate legal outcome for the criminal proceeding. Our concern is with the protection of children in cases where it is more likely than not that they are at risk of violence.
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- Footnote 77
See, for example, DCP v. J.P., J.L., and L.M., 2013 PESC 6.
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- Footnote 78
R. v. Heikamp,  O.J. No. 5382 The charge was quashed at the preliminary inquiry stage.
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- Footnote 79
See, for example, Children's Aid Society of Ottawa v MB,  OJ No 1054 (Sup Ct J); Children's Aid Society of Ottawa v CW, 2008 CanLII 13181 (ONSC); Children's Aid Society of Hamilton v EO  OJ No 5534 (Sup Ct); CB v Alberta (Child, Youth & Family Enhancement Act, Director), 2008 ABQB 165; Winnipeg (Child and Family Services) v LMT, 1999 CanLII 14177 (MB QB).
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- Footnote 80
OACAS Child Welfare Report, 2012, p.10
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- Footnote 81
For the Good of Our Children and Youth: Report of the Saskatchewan Child Welfare Review Panel. November 2010, p.29. http://saskchildwelfarereview.ca/CWR-panel-report.pdf
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- Footnote 82
Ken Fowler, PhD, Children in Care in Newfoundland and Labrador, September 2008, p.89 http://www.gov.nl.ca/cyfs/publications/childcare/InCareReport.pdf
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- Footnote 83
Closing the Gap Between Vision and Reality: Strengthening Accountability, Adaptability and Continuous Improvement in Alberta’s Child Intervention System. Final Report of the Alberta Child Intervention Review Panel, June 30, 2010, p.70. http://cwrp.ca/sites/default/files/publications/en/AB-Child_Intervention_Panel.pdf.
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- Footnote 84
See, for example, the Auditor General’s report in 2008 and 2011.
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- Footnote 85
 3 S.C.R. 46.
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- Footnote 86
See e.g. Re V, 2009 SKQB 50; and Huron-Perth CAS v JJ,  OJ 5372 (Ont. Ct. J.), where the court stated that “it is reasonable to think that the legal aid program in the province is capable of assessing financial eligibility in a sensible, logical and humane fashion.”
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- Footnote 87
Kate Kehoe and David Wiseman, “Reclaiming a Contextualized Approach to the Right to State-Funded Counsel in Child Protection Cases”, (2012) 63 UNB LJ 166.
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- Footnote 88
This approach was adopted by the British Columbia Supreme Court in British Columbia (Director of Child, Family & Community Service) v. L.(T.), 2010 BCSC 105.
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- Footnote 89
Notable exceptions are courses that address child protection issues at the University of Ottawa, the University of Toronto, Osgoode Hall and Queen’s University.
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- Footnote 90
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- Footnote 91
The Ontario Chapter of the Association of Family & Conciliation Courts (AFCC-O) has begun to address the lack of professional education in the child protection field by offering a four day program in Toronto in the fall of 2013.
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- Footnote 92
Professor Nicholas Bala raised this issue during his testimony before the Inquiry into Pediatric Forensic Pathology in Ontario on February 21, 2008. The transcript of Professor Bala's testimony can be found online: http://mail.tscript.com/trans/pfp/feb_21_08/index.htm
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- Footnote 93
Honouring Kaitlynne, Max and Cordon – Make Their Voices Heard Now. Report of the BC Representative for Children and Youth, 2012, p. 72; P Jaffe & M. Juodis, “Children as victims and witnesses of intimate partner homicide: Lessons learned from intimate partner violence death review committees”  Juvenile and Family Court Journal 13 – 27.
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- Footnote 94
Honouring Kaitlynne, Max and Cordon – Make Their Voices Heard Now, p.54, 59
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- Footnote 95
See e.g. W.C. v C.E., 2010 ONSC 3575.
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- Footnote 96
Breach of a child protection order is a provincial offence, and may not be prosecuted with vigour in a system with already stretched resources. Maximum penalties for breaching child protection orders vary from six months/$1000 fine (Ontario) to 24 months/$50,000 fine (Manitoba). A person who breaches a bail, probation or conditional sentence order, on the other hand, may be subject to immediate detention under the Criminal Code.
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- Footnote 97
Parents without care of children and a history of intimate partner violence (i.e. typically abusive men) may have less incentive to comply with terms of child protection orders.
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- Footnote 98
See Children’s Aid Society Region of Halton v. O. (J.), supra, where the court permitted the introduction of transcripts of the children’s evidence in a criminal preliminary hearing for assault charges against their parents, but permitted counsel for the parents to cross-examine the children on this evidence.
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- Footnote 99
Helen How, quoted in Di Luca et al, Best Practices Where There is Family Violence (Criminal law Perspective) (March 2012) p.15; see also Peguis Child and Family Services v. C.S.,  M.J. No. 302 (Q.B.), where police objected to the release of records involving minors to a child protection agency on the grounds that the child protection agency seeking the records would not treat the minors properly.
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- Footnote 100
Children’s Aid Society of Algoma v. B. (S).  OnCJ 358 (CanLII), at pars 13 – 16.; see also Peguis Child and Family Services v. C.S.,  M.J. No. 302 (Q.B.)
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- Footnote 101
New Brunswick (Minister of Health) v. G.J.  3 S.C.R. 46 at par. 76 per Lamer C.J.C
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- Footnote 102
Di Luca et al, Best Practices Where There is Family Violence (Criminal Law Perspective) (March 2012) p.29
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- Footnote 103
R. v. Nedelcu, 2012 SCC 59
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- Footnote 104
Children’s Aid Society of Huron County v. R.G.,  O.J. No. 3104 (O.C.J.)
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- Footnote 105
Di Luca et al, Best Practices Where There is Family Violence (Criminal Law Perspective) (March 2012) p.15. A similar suggestion that participants in the criminal justice system have a better understanding of children’s needs than do child protection workers was addressed by Justice Thompson of the Manitoba Queen’s Bench, Family Division, in Peguis Child and Family Services,  M.J. No. 302 (Q.B.): “This position is difficult to understand. Peguis Child and Family Services is a mandated child protection agency whose staff has typically greater training and experience in dealing with children in distress than do the members of the Service.”
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- Footnote 106
K.G.B. statements refer to statements taken by the police from a witness or victim that can be used to prove the guilt of the accused even if the witness or victim is recanting. To be admissible these statements must be taken in accordance with a process established in the Supreme Court decision in R. v. K.G.B.,  1 S.C.R. 740, which requires a reliable record (usually satisfied by video-recording) and a warning to the person making the statement of the importance of truth telling in making the statement and possible consequences of dishonesty
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- Footnote 107
Honouring Kaitlynne, Max and Cordon, pp. 33, 38, 41
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- Footnote 108
Honouring Kaitlynne, Max and Cordon, p. 49
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- Footnote 109
Di Luca et al, Best Practices Where There is Family Violence (Criminal Law Perspective) (March 2012) p.15
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- Footnote 110
Honouring Kaitlynne, Max and Cordon, p. 57
Return to footnote 110 referrer
- Footnote 111
Intimate Partner Violence Death Review Committee (Ontario) 2011 Annual Report, pp.8 – 9. http://www.mcscs.jus.gov.on.ca/stellent/groups/public/@mcscs/@www/@com/documents/webasset/ec160943.pdf
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- Footnote 112
Jaffe, P. and Juodis, M. (2006) Children as victims and witnesses of intimate partner homicide: Lessons learned from intimate partner violence death review committees. Juvenile and Family Court Journal, 13-27.
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- Footnote 113
In Manitoba, there is no penalty for any person failing to report, but members of regulated professions who breach this duty can be reported to their licensing body. The Child and Family Services Act, C.C.S.M., c. C80, s.18. Prince Edward Island, Saskatchewan, and Quebec and Yukon do not impose penalties or provide for advising regulating bodies of a failure to report. Child Protection Act, R.S.P.E.I. 1988, c. C-5.1., s.22; Child and Family Services Act, S.S. 1989-90, c. C-7.2; Youth Protection Act, R.S.Q., chapter P-34.1; Child and Family Services Act, S.Y. 2008, c. 1.
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- Footnote 114
Honouring Kaitlynne, Max and Cordon, p.78
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- Footnote 115
D.P. v. Wagg (2002), 61 O.R. (3d) 746 (Div. Ct.)
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- Footnote 116
Children’s Aid Society of Algoma v. P.(D.), 2006 ONCJ 170, affirmed  O.J. No. 3601 (ONSC); Peguis Child and Family Services v. C.S.,  M.J. No. 302 (Q.B.)
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- Footnote 117
Children’s Aid Society of Algoma v. P.(D.), 2006 ONCJ 170, affirmed  O.J. No. 3601 (ONSC); Awasis Agency of Northern Manitoba v. B.D.B.,  M.J. No. 419; 2009 MBQB 316 (Man QB Family Division)
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- Footnote 118
Peguis Child and Family Services v. C.S.,  M.J. No. 302 (Q.B.),at par. 41 per M. A. Thompson J.
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- Footnote 119
W.H. v. H.C.A., 2006 CanLII 27865.
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- Footnote 120
R. v. Miller (2000), 147 C.C.C. (3d) 156 (BCCA) R. v. R.A.M.,  M.J. No. 597 (Man.C.A.).
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- Footnote 121
A judge is not required to accept an agreement made between the accused and the Crown as to sentence, and may refuse to accept a plea to a lesser charge. However, “trial judges in most cases do, and should, give great weight to the decision of counsel for the prosecution, as a representative of the public interest with heavy responsibilities, to accept a plea of guilty to an included or lesser offence.” Provided the Crown demonstrates that the plea reflects “a reasonable exercise of prosecutorial discretion having regard to the public interest in the effective administration of justice”, it is reasonable for a judge to accept the plea: R. v. Naraindeen (1990), 80 C.R. (3d) 66) (Ont.C.A.) at para. 29.
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- Footnote 122
R v McNeil (2009), 62 C.R. (6th) 1 (S.C.C.)
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- Footnote 123
Children’s Aid Society of Algoma v. P.(D.), 2006 ONCJ 170, affirmed  O.J. No. 3601 (ONSC).
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- Footnote 124
British Columbia, Family Law Act, s. 37(2)(g) & (h) & 38; Ontario Children’s Law Reform Act; Nova Scotia Maintenance and Custody Act s.18(6)(j)
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- Footnote 125
British Columbia, Family Law Act, s. 37(2)(j)
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- Footnote 126
Ontario, Child and Family Services Act, s.59.2
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- Footnote 127
British Columbia, Family Law Act, s.1; Nova Scotia Maintenance and Custody Act s.2(da)
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- Footnote 128
See e.g. British Columbia, Family Law Act s.38; Nova Scotia Maintenance and Custody Act RSNS 1989 c160 s. 18(7).
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- Footnote 129
Ontario Children’s Law Reform Act, s35; British Columbia Family Law Act s. 188(1)(b). Because breaches of restraining orders are not identified in these statutes as provincial offences, such breaches are now enforceable under s.127 of the Criminal Code. Child protection courts in Ontario can also impose such orders: Child and Family Services Act, s. 57.1(3)&(4).
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- Footnote 130
Manitoba, Child and Family Services Act s.18.4(1.1)
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- Footnote 131
Ontario, Children’s Law Reform Act, s.21(2)(b)
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- Footnote 132
New Brunswick Family Services Act SNB 1980 cF-2.2, s.7(a)
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- Footnote 133
Ontario, Child and Family Services Act, s.57.1
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- Footnote 134
Ontario, Child and Family Services Acts s. 72(2). A practice memorandum was created in response to these amendments, to clarify the Crown’s duty to report to the CAS in Ontario. March 31, 2000 Practice Memorandum.
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- Footnote 135
New Brunswick’s Family Services Act (s. 31(1)(f)) and Alberta’s Child, Youth and Family Enhancement Act (s.1(3)(a)(ii)(C)) both include exposure to intimate partner violence as grounds for child protection intervention.
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- Footnote 136
The BC Representative for Children and Youth noted the challenges CPA workers face in determining whether exposure to violence is grounds for a finding that a child is in need of protection in the absence of explicit language in the governing statute. Honouring Kaitlynne, Max and Cordon, p. 64.
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- Footnote 137
Such as is currently provided for in the British Columbia Family Law Act, ss. 183(3)(c) & 188(2)
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- Footnote 138
See e.g. Action Committee on Access to Justice in Civil and Family Matters, Meaningful Change for Family Justice: Beyond Wise Words: Final Report of the Family Justice Working Group of the Action Committee on Access to Justice in Civil and Family Matters (April 2013), Recommendation 19
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- Footnote 139
Practice Direction regarding the Integrated Intimate partner Violence Court at 311 Jarvis Street, Toronto (April 26, 2013) http://www.ontariocourts.ca/ocj/legal-professionals/practice-directions/toronto-region/integrated-intimate partner-violence-court/
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- Footnote 140
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- Footnote 141
As explained on the Ontario Court of Justice website: http://www.ontariocourts.ca/ocj/integrated-intimate partner-violence-court/
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- Footnote 142
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- Footnote 143
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- Footnote 144
www.yukoncourts.ca/courts/territorial/dvtoc.html; Canadian Research Institute for Law and the Family. The Intimate partner Violence Treatment Option (DVTO), Whitehorse, Yukon: Final Evaluation Report October 2005 http://people.ucalgary.ca/~crilf/publications/Final_Outcome_Analysis_Report.pdf
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- Footnote 145
www.yukoncourts.ca/courts/territorial/dvtoc.html; Canadian Research Institute for Law and the Family. The Intimate partner Violence Treatment Option (DVTO), Whitehorse, Yukon: Final Evaluation Report October 2005 http://people.ucalgary.ca/~crilf/publications/Final_Outcome_Analysis_Report.pdf
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- Footnote 146
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- Footnote 147
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- Footnote 148
The Honourable Donna Martinson, One Assault Allegation, Two Courts: Can We Do A Better Job of Coordinating the Family and Criminal Proceedings, Managing the Intimate partner Violence Case, National Judicial Institute Conference, Quebec City, November 16-19, 2010
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- Footnote 149
Nova Scotia and British Columbia, for example
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- Footnote 150
For a discussion of how conferencing can work between two courts in Canada, see Giesbrecht v Giesbrecht, 2013 MBQB 115 per Diamond J.
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- Footnote 151
Native Child and Family Services of Toronto v. P.(S.) et al., 2009 ONCJ 473.
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- Footnote 152
As suggested by Justice Glenn in Children’s Aid Society of Huron County v. R.G.,  O.J. No. 3104 (O.C.J.) at par. 9
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- Footnote 153
For example, a social worker from the Pembroke child protection agency works in the office of the Pembroke police services. http://www.oacas.org/criticalconnections/resources/h1.pdf
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- Footnote 154
Forum presentations can be found at http://www.oacas.org/criticalconnections/
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- Footnote 155
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- Footnote 156
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- Footnote 157
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- Footnote 158
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- Footnote 159
Honouring Kaitlynne, Max and Cordon, p.45
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- Footnote 160
Lisa Tomlinson, Differential Response in Intimate Partner Violence Cases, presentation to the National Judicial Institute, October 2012.
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- Footnote 161
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- Footnote 162
CAS York v AS, 2010 ONSC 1287 (SC), affd. 2011 ONSC 1732 (Div. Ct.).
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- Footnote 163
CAS Waterloo v KAL, 2010 ONCJ 80, per McSorley J.
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- Footnote 164
Law Society of Upper Canada, Rules of Professional Conduct, Commentary to Rule 4.01.
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- Footnote 165
The only exception to solicitor-client privilege is where there is a clear risk of imminent serious bodily harm or death: Smith v. Jones,  1 S.C.R. 455.
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- Footnote 166
Information on the High Conflict Forum in Toronto can be found on the website of Jewish Family & Child Services: http://www.jfandcs.com/Client/JFCS/JFCS_2011_LP4W_LND_WebStation.nsf/page/The+High+Conflict+Forum!opendocument
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- Footnote 167
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