Legislative Background: Medical Assistance in Dying (Bill C-14, as Assented to on June 17, 2016)

Annex E: Bibliography on Medical Assistance in Dying

Legal/Medical Research and Commentary

Canada

  • Beschle, D.L. “Carter v. Canada (Attorney General): Canadian courts revisit the criminalization of assisted suicide” (2013) 59 Wayne Law Review 561.
  • Claxton-Oldfield, S. & K. Miller. “A study of Canadian hospice palliative care volunteers’ attitudes toward physician-assisted suicide” (2015) 32:3 American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine 305.
  • Keown, John. “A right to voluntary euthanasia? Confusion in Canada in Carter” (2014) 28:1 Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics and Public Policy.
  • Marcoux, I. et al. “Health care professionals’ comprehension of the legal status of end-of-life practices in Quebec: Study of clinical scenarios” (2015) 61 Canadian Family Physician 196.
  • Murphy, S. “Legalizing therapeutic homicide and assisted suicide: A tour of Carter v. Canada” (2012).
  • Newman, DG. “Judicial method and three gaps in the Supreme Court of Canada's assisted suicide judgment in Carter” (2015) 78 Saskatchewan Law Review 217.
  • Schafer, A. “Physician assisted suicide: The great Canadian euthanasia debate” (2013) 36 International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 522.
  • Surtees, D. “Authorizing of physician-assisted death in Carter v. Canada (Attorney General)” (2015) 78 Saskatchewan Law Review 225.
  • Tigerstrom, Barbara von. “Consenting to physician-assisted death: Issues arising from Carter v. Canada (Attorney General)” (2015) 78 Saskatchewan Law Review 233.
  • Vachon, M. “Quebec proposition of Medical Aid in Dying: A palliative care perspective” (2013) 36 International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 532.

Canadian academics and experts

  • Boudreau, J.D. & M.A. Somerville. “Euthanasia is not medical treatment” (2013) 106 British Medical Bulletin 45.
  • Boudreault, J.D.; Somerville, M.A. & Biller-Andorno, N. “Physician-Assisted Suicide” (2013) 368 New England Journal of Medicine 1450.
  • Chochinov, H. M. et al. “Understanding the will to live in patients nearing death” (2005) 46:1 Psychosomatics 7.
  • Chochinov, H.M. “Dying, dignity, and new horizons in palliative end-of-life care” (2006) 58 CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians 84.
  • Chochinov, H.M. et al. "Dignity in the terminally ill: a cross-sectional, cohort study” (2002) 360 Lancet 2026.
  • Chochinov, H.M. et al. “Dignity in the terminally ill: a developing empirical model” (2002) 54 Social Science and Medicine 433.
  • Chochinov, H.M. et al. “The Patient Dignity Inventory: A Novel Way of Measuring Dignity Related Distress in Palliative Care” (2008) 36:6 Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 559.
  • Chochinov, H.M. et al. “The Landscape of Distress in the Terminally Ill” (2009) 38(5) Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 641.
  • Chochinov, H.M. et al. “Effect of dignity therapy on distress and end-of-life experience in terminally ill patients: A randomized controlled trial” (2011) 12 Lancet Oncology 753.
  • Chochinov, H.M. et al. “Dignity in the Terminally Ill: Revisited” (2006) 9:3 Journal of Palliative Medicine 666.
  • Chochinov, H.M. “Dignity and the essence of medicine: the A, B, C, and D of dignity conserving care” (2007) 335:7612 British Medical Journal 184.
  • ―――. “Dignity and the Eye of the Beholder” (2004) 22:7 Journal of Clinical Oncology 1336.
  • Heisel, M.J. & P.R. Duberstein. “Suicide prevention in older adults” (2005) 12 Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 242.
  • Heisel, M.J. “Suicide and its prevention among older adults” (2006) 51 Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 143.
  • Heisel, M.J. et al. “Concordance of self-and proxy-reported suicide ideation in depressed adults 50 years of age or older” (2011) 56 Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 219.
  • Mishara, B.L. & D.N. Weisstub. “Premises and evidence in the rhetoric of assisted suicide and euthanasia” (2013) 36 International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 427.
  • Mishara, B.L. & D.N. Weisstub. “Ethical, Legal, and Practical Issues in the Control and Regulation of Suicide Promotion and Assistance over the Internet” (2007) 37:1 Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 58.
  • Mishara, B.L. & D.N. Weisstub. “Resolving Ethical Dilemmas in Suicide Prevention” (2010) 40:2 Suicide Life Threat Behav.159.
  • Mishara, B.L. & D.N. Weisstub. “Défis éthiques pour les nouvelles pratiques en prévention du suicide” (2010) 14:114 La Revue Française et Francophone de Psychiatrie et de Psychologie Médicale 6.

United States

  • Bostrom, B.A. “Baxter v. State of Montana” (2010) 26 Issues in Law & Medicine 79.
  • Breitbart, W. “Physician-assisted suicide ruling in Montana: Struggling with care of the dying, responsibility, and freedom in big sky country” (2010) 8:01 Palliative and Supportive Care 1.
  • Campbell, C.S. & M.A. Black. “Dignity, death, and dilemmas: A study of Washington hospices and physician-assisted death” (2014) 47:1 Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 137.
  • Cerminara, K.L. & A. Perez. “Therapeutic death: A look at Oregon’s law” (2000) 6 Psychology Public Policy Law 503.
  • Coleman, D. “Assisted suicide laws create discriminatory double standard for who gets suicide prevention and who gets suicide assistance: Not Dead Yet Responds to Autonomy Inc.” (2010) 3 Disability Health Journal 39.
  • Drum, C.E. et al. “The Oregon Death with Dignity Act: Results of a literature review and naturalistic inquiry” (2010) 3:1 Disability and Health Journal 3.
  • Espino, D.V. et al. “Physician‐assisted suicide attitudes of older Mexican‐American and Non‐Hispanic white adults: Does ethnicity make a difference?” (2010) 58:7 Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1370.
  • Foley, K. & H. Hendin. The Oregon Experiment, in The Case Against Assisted Suicide: For the Right to End-of Life Care. (Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002).
  • Gamondi, C. et al. “Families' experiences with patients who died after assisted suicide: a retrospective interview study in southern Switzerland” (2013) 24:6 Annals of oncology 1639.
  • Ganzini, L. et al. “Oregon Physicians Perceptions of Patients who Request Assisted Suicide and their Families” (2003) 6 Journal of Palliative Medicine 381.
  • Ganzini, L. et al. “Oregonians Reasons for Requesting Physician Aid in Dying” (2009) 169 Archives of Internal Medicine 489.
  • Ganzini, L. et al. “Mental Health Outcomes of Family Members of Oregonians who Request Physician Aid in Dying” (2009) 28: 6 Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 807.
  • Ganzini, L. et al. “Physicians experiences with the Oregon Death with Dignity Act” (2000) 342 New England Journal of Medicine 557.
  • Ganzini, L. et al. “Oregon physicians attitudes about and experiences with end-of-life care since passage of the Oregon Death with Dignity Act” (2001) 285:18 Journal of American Medical Association 2363.
  • Hamilton, N.G. & C.A. Hamilton. “Competing Paradigms of Response to Assisted Suicide Requests in Oregon” (2005) 162:6 American Journal of Psychiatry 1060.
  • Hendin, H. & K. Foley. “Physician-Assisted Suicide in Oregon: A Medical Perspective” (2008) 106 Michigan Law Review 1613.
  • Hedberg, K.; D. Hopkins & M. Kohn. “Five years of legal physician-assisted suicide in Oregon” (2003) 348 New England Journal of Medicine 961.
  • Lee, B.C. & J.L. Jr. Werth. “Observations on the first year of Oregon’s Death with Dignity Act” (2000) 8 Psychol Public Policy Law 268.
  • Norton, E.M. & P.J. Miller. “What their terms of living and dying might be: Hospice social workers discuss Oregon's Death with Dignity Act” (2012) 8:3 Journal of Social Work in End-of-Life & Palliative Care 249.
  • Oldham, R.L. et al. “Attachment styles of Oregonians who request physician-assisted death” (2011) 9:02 Palliative and Supportive Care 123.
  • Reynolds, L. “Losing the quality of life: The move towards society's understanding and acceptance of physician aid-in-dying and the Death with Dignity Act” (2013) 48 New England Law Review 343.
  • Rich, B.A. “Baxter v. Montana: What the Montana Supreme Court said about dying, dignity, and palliative options of last resort” (2011) 9:03 Palliative and Supportive Care 233.
  • Sullivan, A. et al. “Legalized physician-assisted suicide in Oregon: The second year” (2000) 342 New England Journal of Medicine 598.
  • Svenson, A.G. “Montana's courting of physician aid in dying: Could Des Moines follow suit?” (2010) 29:2 Politics and the Life Sciences 2.
  • Purvis, T.E. “Debating death: religion, Politics, and the Oregon Death with Dignity Act” (2012) 85:2 The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 271.

Belgium

  • Andrew, E.V. et al. “Social-cultural factors in end-of-life care in Belgium: a scoping of the research literature” (2011) 27:2 Palliative medicine 131.
  • Bernheim, J. L. et al. “Euthanasia and Palliative Care in Belgium: Legitimate Concerns and Unsubstantiated Grievances” (2010) 13:7 Journal of Palliative Medicine 798.
  • Bernheim, J.L. et al. “The Belgian model of comprehensive end-of-life care: Palliative care and euthanasia as complementing, non-conflicting developments. I. Historical, epidemiological and regulatory data” [in Dutch] (2012) 68:11 Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde 539.
  • Bilsen, J. et al. “Nurses’ involvement in physician-assisted dying under the euthanasia law in Belgium” (2014) 51:12 International Journal of Nursing Studies 1696.
  • Bilsen, J. et al. “Changes in medical end-of-life practices during the legalization process of euthanasia in Belgium” (2007) 65 Social Science and Medicine 803.
  • Bilsen, J. et al. “Medical End-of-Life Practices under the Euthanasia Law in Belgium” (2009) 361:11 New England Journal of Medicine 1119.
  • Broeckaert, B. et al. “Euthanasia and palliative care in Belgium: The attitudes of Flemish palliative care nurses and physicians toward euthanasia” (2010) 1:3 AJOB Primary Research 31.
  • Chambaere, K. et al. “Characteristics of Belgian life-ending acts without explicit patient request; a large-scale death certificate survey revisited” (2014) 2:4 Canadian Medical Association Journal Open E262.
  • Chambaere, K. et al. “Physician-assisted deaths under the euthanasia law in Belgium: a population-based survey” (2010) 182:9 Canadian Medical Association Journal 895.
  • Chambaere, K. et al. “End‐of‐life decisions in individuals dying with dementia in Belgium” (2015) 63:2 Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 290.
  • Cohen, J. et al. “Cultural differences affecting euthanasia practice in Belgium: One law but different attitudes and practices in Flanders and Wallonia” (2012) 75:5 Social Science & Medicine 845.
  • Cohen, J. et al. “Nationwide survey to evaluate the decision-making process in euthanasia
  • requests in Belgium: do specifically trained 2nd physicians improve quality of consultation?” (2014) 14 BMC Health Services Research 307.
  • Cohen-Almagor, R. “Euthanasia Policy and Practice in Belgium: Critical Observations and Suggestions for Improvement” (2009) 24:3 Issues in Law & Medicine 187.
  • ―――. “First do no harm: intentionally shortening lives of patients without their explicit request in Belgium” (2015) Journal of Medical Ethics 1.
  • ―――. “First do no harm: pressing concerns regarding euthanasia in Belgium” (2013) 36 International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. Gamester, N. & B. Van Den Eynden. “The Relationship between Palliative Care and Legalized Euthanasia in Belgium” (2009) 12:7 Journal of Palliative Medicine 589.
  • Giglio, F. & A.G. Spagnolo. “Pediatric euthanasia in Belgium: Some ethical considerations” (2014) 12:3 Journal of Medicine and the Person 146.
  • Inghelbrecht. E. et al. “The role of nurses in physician-assisted deaths in Belgium” (2010) 182:9 Canadian Medical Association Journal 905.
  • Meeussen, K. et al. “Physician reports of medication use with explicit intention of hastening the end of life in the absence of explicit patient request in general practice in Belgium” (2010) 10 BMC Public Health 186.
  • Meeussen, K. et al. “Dealing with requests for euthanasia: interview study among general practitioners in Belgium” (2011) 41:6 Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 1060.
  • Pardon, K. et al. “Preferred and actual involvement of advanced lung cancer patients and their families in end-of-life decision making: A multicenter study in 13 hospitals in Flanders, Belgium” (2012) 43:3 Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 515.
  • Roelands, M. et al. “Attitudes of Belgian students of medicine, philosophy, and law toward euthanasia and the conditions for its acceptance” (2015) 39:3 Death studies 139.
  • Smets, T. et al. “Reporting of euthanasia in medical practice in Flanders, Belgium: cross sectional analysis of reported and unreported cases” (2010) 341 British Medical Journal C5174.
  • Smets, T. et al. “Legal Euthanasia in Belgium Characteristics of All Reported Euthanasia Cases” (2010) 48 Medical Care 187.
  • Smets, T. et al. “Euthanasia in patients dying at home in Belgium: interview study on adherence to legal safeguards” (2010) British Journal of General Practice e163.
  • Smets, T. et al. “Attitudes and experiences of Belgian physicians regarding euthanasia practice and the euthanasia law” (2011) 41:3 Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 580.
  • Smets, T. et al. “The labelling and reporting of euthanasia by Belgian physicians: a study of hypothetical cases” (2010) 22:1 European Journal of Public Health 19.
  • Smets, T. et al. “Reporting of euthanasia in medical practice in Flanders, Belgium: cross sectional analysis of reported and unreported cases” (2010) 341 British Medical Journal c5174.
  • Thienpont, L. et al. “Euthanasia requests, procedures and outcomes for 100 Belgian patients suffering from psychiatric disorders: a retrospective, descriptive study” (2015) 5:7 British Medical Journal Open.
  • Van Brussel, L.; P. Van Landeghem & J. Cohen. “Media coverage of medical decision making at the end of life: a Belgian case study” (2014) 38:2 Death studies 125.
  • Van den Block, L. et al. “Euthanasia and other end of life decisions and care provided in final three months of life: nationwide retrospective study in Belgium” (2009) 339 British Medical Journal b2772.
  • Van den Block, L. et al. “Euthanasia and other end-of-life decisions: a mortality follow-back study in Belgium” (2009) 9 BMC Public Health 79.
  • Van Wesemael, Y. et al. “Process and outcomes of euthanasia requests under the Belgian act on euthanasia: a nationwide survey” (2011) 42:5 Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 721.
  • Van Wesemael, Y. et al. “Implementation of a service for physicians’ consultation and information in euthanasia requests in Belgium” (2012) 104:3 Health Policy 272.

The Netherlands

  • Battin, M.P.; F. Norwood; G. Kimsma. “Vulnerability and the slippery slope at the end-of life; a qualitative study of euthanasia, general practice and home death in The Netherlands” (2009) 26:6 Family Practice 472.
  • Berghmans, R.L. & G.A. Widdershoven. “Euthanasia in the Netherlands: Consultation and review” (2012) 23:2 King's Law Journal 109.
  • Booij, S.J. et al. « Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in Huntington's disease in The Netherlands” (2013) 25:2 International Psychogeriatrics 339.
  • Buiting, H.M. et al. “Reporting of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the Netherlands: Descriptive study” (2009) 10:18 BMC Medical Ethics.
  • Buiting, H.M. et al. “Older peoples' attitudes towards euthanasia and an end-of-life pill in The Netherlands: 2001–2009” (2012) 38:5 Journal of Medical Ethics 267.
  • Buiting, H.M. et al. “Dutch criteria of due care for physician-assisted dying in medical practice: a physician perspective” (2008) 34:9 Journal of Medical Ethics e12.
  • Cohen-Almagor R. “Non-Voluntary and Involuntary Euthanasia in the Netherlands: Dutch Perspectives” (2002) II:5 Croatian Journal of Philosophy 46-63.
  • De Boer, M.E. et al. “Advance Directives for Euthanasia in Dementia: How do They Affect Resident Care in Dutch Nursing Homes? Experiences of Physicians and Relatives” (2011) 59 Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 989.
  • Dees, M.K. et al. “Perspectives of decision-making in requests for euthanasia: A qualitative research among patients, relatives and treating physicians in the Netherlands” (2013) 27:1 Palliative Medicine 27.
  • Deliens, L. et al. “End-of-life decisions in medical practice in Flanders, Belgium: a nationwide survey” (2000) 356:9244 Lancet 1806.
  • Gordijn, B. & R. Janssens. “The Prevention of Euthanasia through Palliative care: New Developments in the Netherlands” (2000) 41 Patient Education and Counseling 35.
  • Haverkate, I. et al. “Refused and granted requests for euthanasia and assisted suicide in the Netherlands: interview study with structured questionnaire” (2000) 321 British Medical Journal 865.
  • Hesselink, B.A.M. et al. “Do guidelines on euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in Dutch hospitals and nursing homes reflect the law? A content analysis” (2012) 38:1 Journal of Medical Ethics 35.
  • Jansen-van der Weide, M.C. et al. “Quality of consultation and the project ‘Support and Consultation on Euthanasia in the Netherlands’ (SCEN)” (2007) 80:1 Health Policy 97.
  • Kim, S.Y.; R.G. De Vries & J.R. Peteet. “Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide of Patients with Psychiatric Disorders in the Netherlands 2011 to 2014” (2016) JAMA Psychiatry.
  • Kimsma, G.K.; F. Norwood & M. Battin. “Vulnerability and the slippery slope at the end-of life: a qualitative study of euthanasia, general practice and home death in the Netherlands” (2009) 26:6 Family Practice 472.
  • Kimsma, G.K. “Death by request in the Netherlands: facts, the legal context and effects on physicians, patients and families” (2010) 13:4 Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 355.
  • Kouwenhoven, P.S. et al. “Opinions of health care professionals and the public after eight years of euthanasia legislation in the Netherlands: A mixed methods approach” (2013) 27:3 Palliative Medicine 273.
  • Kouwenhoven, P.S. et al. “Euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide? A survey from the Netherlands” (2014) 20:1 The European Journal of General Practice 25.
  • Kouwenhoven, P.S. et al. “Opinions about euthanasia and advance dementia: a qualitative study among Dutch physicians and members of the general public” (2015) 16 BMC Medical Ethics 7.
  • Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D. et al. “Dutch experience of monitoring euthanasia” (2005) 331 British Medical Journal 691.
  • Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D. et al. “Euthanasia and Other End-of-Life Decisions in the Netherlands in 1990. 1995, and 2001” (2003) 362 Lancet 395.
  • Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D. et al. “Trends in end-of-life practices before and after the enactment of the euthanasia law in the Netherlands from 1990 to 2010: a repeated cross-sectional survey” (2012) 380:9845 Lancet 908.
  • Ost, S. & A. Mullock. “Pushing the boundaries of lawful assisted dying in the Netherlands? Existential suffering and lay assistance” (2011) 18:2 European Journal of Health Law 163.
  • Pols, H. & S. Oak “Physician-assisted dying and psychiatry: Recent developments in the Netherlands” (2013) 36:5 International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 506.
  • Rietjens, J. et al. “Two Decades of Research on Euthanasia from the Netherlands. What Have We Learnt and What Questions Remain?” (2009) 6 Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 271.
  • Schoonman, M.K. et al. “Non-physician-assisted suicide in The Netherlands: a cross sectional survey among the general public” (2014) 40:12 Journal of Medical Ethics 842.
  • Snijdewind, M.C. et al. “Complexities in euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide as perceived by Dutch physicians and patients' relatives” (2014) 48:6 Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 1125.
  • Snijdewind, M.C. et al. “A Study of the First Year of the End-of-Life Clinic for Physician Assisted Dying in the Netherlands” (2015) 175:10 American Medical Association Journal of Internal Medicine 1633.
  • Van der Heide, A. et al. “End of life practices in the Netherlands under the Euthanasia Act” (2007) 356:19 New England Journal of Medicine 1957.
  • Van Tol D.G.; J.A. Rietjens & A. van der Heide “Empathy and the application of the ‘unbearable suffering’criterion in Dutch euthanasia practice” (2012) 105:2 Health Policy 296.

Switzerland

  • Black. I. “Existential suffering and the extent of the right to physician assisted suicide in Switzerland” (2014) 22:1 Medical Law Review 109.
  • Bosshard, G.; S. Fischer & W. Bär. “Open regulation and practice in assisted dying – How Switzerland compares with the Netherlands and Oregon” (2002) 132 Swiss Medical Weekly 527.
  • Bosshard, G.; E. Ulrich & W. Bär. “748 cases of suicide assisted by a Swiss right-to-die organisation” (2003) 133 Swiss Medical Weekly 310.
  • Bosshard, G. et al. “Assessment of requests for assisted suicide by a Swiss Right-to-Die Society” (2008) 62 Death Studies 646.
  • Bosshard, G. “Switzerland” in J. Griffiths & H. Weyers, eds, Euthanasia and Law in Europe (Oregon: Hart Publishing, 2008) 463.
  • Brauer, S.; C. Bolligerb & J.D. Struba. “Swiss physicians’ attitudes to assisted suicide” (2015) 145 Swiss Medical Weekly w14142.
  • Fischer, S. et al. “Suicide assisted by two Swiss right-to-die organizations” (2008) 34:11 Journal of Medical Ethics 810.
  • Fischer, S. et al. “Reasons why people in Switzerland seek assisted suicide: the view of patients and physicians” (2009) 139:23-24 Swiss Medical Weekly 333.
  • Fischer, S. et al. “Suicide assisted by two Swiss right-to-die organisations” (2008) 34 Journal of Medical Ethics 810.
  • Frei, A. et al. “Assisted suicide as conducted by a Right-to-Die Society in Switzerland: A descriptive analysis of 43 consecutive cases” (2001) 131 Swiss Medical Weekly 375.
  • Gauthier, S. et al. “Suicide tourism: a pilot study on the Swiss phenomenon” (2014) Journal of medical ethics (doi:10.1136/medethics-2014-102091).
  • Harmon, S.H. & N. Sethi. “Preserving life and facilitating death: What role for government after Haas v. Switzerland” (2011) 18 European Journal of Health Law 355.
  • Hurst, S. & A. Mauron. “Assisted suicide and euthanasia in Switzerland: allowing a role for non-physicians” (2003) 326 British Medical Journal 271.
  • Pereira, J. et al. “The response of a Swiss university hospital’s palliative care consult team to assisted suicide within the institution” (2008) 22:5 Palliative Medicine 659.
  • Steck, N.; M. Zwahlen & M. Egger. “Time-trends in assisted and unassisted suicides completed with different methods: Swiss National Cohort” (2015) 145 Swiss Medical Weekly w14153.

Luxembourg

  • Leners, J.C. “Euthanasia, palliative care, hospice and elderly in Luxembourg. Ethical and numerical considerations over 3 years” (2013) 4 European Geriatric Medicine S38.

Comparative studies (Europe, US)

  • Battin, M.P.; A. van der Heide; L. Ganzini; G. van der Wal & B.D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen. “Legal physician-assisted dying in Oregon and the Netherlands: evidence concerning the impact on patients in vulnerable groups” (2007) 33:10 Journal of Medical Ethics 591.
  • Bosshard, G. et al. “A role for doctors in assisted dying? An analysis of legal regulations and medical professional positions in six European countries” (2008) 34 Journal of Medical Ethics 28.
  • Chambaere, K. & J.L. Bernheim. “Does legal physician-assisted dying impede development of palliative care? The Belgian and Benelux experience” (2015) 41:8 Journal of Medical Ethics 657.
  • Cohen, J. et al. “Trends in acceptance of euthanasia among the general public in 12 European countries (1981-1999)” (2006) 16:6 European Journal of Public Health 663.
  • Finlay, I.G. & R. George. “Legal physician-assisted suicide in Oregon and The Netherlands: evidence concerning the impact on patients in vulnerable groups – another perspective on Oregon’s data” (2011) 37 Journal of Medical Ethics 171.
  • Halliday, S. “Comparative reflections upon the Assisted Dying Bill 2013. A plea for a more European approach” (2013) 13:2-3 Medical Law International 135.
  • Van der Heide, A. et al. On behalf of the EURELD consortium. “End-of-life decision-making in six European countries: descriptive study” (2003) 362 Lancet 345.
  • Keown, J, “Considering Physician-Assisted Suicide: an evaluation of Lord Joffe’s Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill” (2006) Care Not Killing Alliance Report.
  • Lewis, P. & I. Black. “Adherence to the request criterion in jurisdictions where assisted dying is lawful? A review of the criteria and evidence in the Netherlands, Belgium, Oregon, and Switzerland” (2013) 41:4 The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 885.
  • Price, A. et al. “Prevalence, course and associations of desire for hastened death in a UK palliative population: A cross-sectional study” (2011) 1:2 British Medical Journal Supportive and Palliative Care 140.
  • Rurup, M.L. et al. “The first five years of euthanasia legislation in Belgium and the Netherlands: description and comparison of cases” (2012) 26:1 Palliative Medicine” 43.
  • Smets, T. et al. “The medical practice of euthanasia in Belgium and The Netherlands: Legal notification, control and evaluation procedures” (2009) 90 Health Policy 181.
  • Steck, N. et al. “Euthanasia and assisted suicide in selected European countries and US states: systematic literature review” (2013) 51:10 Medical Care 938.
  • Van Wesemael, Y. et al. “Establishing specialized health services for professional consultation in euthanasia: experiences in the Netherlands and Belgium” (2009) 9 BMC Health Services Research 220.
  • Voorhees, J.R. et al. “Discussing physician-assisted dying: Physicians’ experiences in the United States and the Netherlands” (2014) 54:5 The Gerontologist 808.
  • Wesemael, Y.V. et al. “Establishing specialized health services for professional consultation in euthanasia: experiences in the Netherlands and Belgium” (2009) 9 British Medical Journal: Health Services Research 220.

Other

  • Aghababaei, N.; H. Farahani & J. Hatami. “Euthanasia attitude; A comparison of two scales” (2011) 4 Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine 9.
  • Anquinet, L. et al. “Similarities and differences between continuous sedation until death and euthanasia–professional caregivers’ attitudes and experiences: A focus group study” (2013) 27:6 Palliative Medicine 553.
  • Appelbaum, P.S. “Physician-Assisted Death for Patients With Mental Disorders – Reasons for Concern” (2016) 73:4 JAMA Psychiatry 325.
  • Back, A.L. et al. “Clinician-Patient Interactions about Requests for Physician-Assisted Suicide” (2003) 162 Archives of Internal Medicine 1257.
  • Back, A.L. & R.A. Pearlman. “Desire for physician-assisted suicide: Requests for a better death?” (2001) 358 Lancet 344.
  • Barnow, S. et al. “Influence of age of patients who wish to die on treatment decisions by physicians and nurses” (2004) 12:3 American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 258.
  • Bascom, P.B. & S.W. Tolle. “Responding to Requests for Physician Assisted-Suicide: These are uncharted waters for both of us…” (2002) 288:1 Journal of the American Medical Association91.
  • Battin, M.P. “Physician-Assisted Dying and the Slippery Slope: the Challenge of Empirical Evidence” (2008) 45 Willamette Law Review 91.
  • Behuniak, S.M. “Death with “dignity” The wedge that divides the disability rights movement from the right to die movement” (2011) 30:1 Politics and the Life Sciences 17.
  • Berghmans, R.; G. Widdershoven & I. Widdershoven-Heerding. “Physician-assisted suicide in psychiatry and loss of hope” (2013) 36:5 International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 436.
  • Bernheim, J.L. “A flawed debate on assisted dying” (2011) British Medical Journal 342.
  • Bernheim, J.L. et al. “Development of palliative care and legalization of euthanasia: antagonism or synergy?” (2008) 336 British Journal of Medicine 864.
  • Bharucha, A.J. et al. “The Pursuit of Physician-Assisted Suicide: Role of Psychiatric Factors” (2003) 6:6 Journal of Palliative Medicine 873.
  • Blevins, D.; T.A. Preston & J.L. Werlth Jr. “Characteristics of persons approving of physician-assisted death” (2005) 29 Death Studies 601.
  • Block, S.D. “Assessing and managing depression in the terminally ill patient. ACP-ASIIA End-of-Life Care Consensus Panel. American College of Physicians- American Society of Internal Medicine” (2000) 132:3 Annals of Internal Medicine 209.
  • Bolt, E.E. et al. “Can physicians conceive of performing euthanasia in case of psychiatric disease, dementia or being tired of living?” (2015) 41:8 Journal of Medical Ethics 592.
  • Breitbart, W. et al. “Depression, Hopelessness, and Desire for Hastened Death in Terminally Ill Patients with Cancer” (2000) 284 Journal of the American Medical Association 2907.
  • Breitbart, W. et al. “Depression, hopelessness, and desire for hastened death in terminally ill patients with cancer” (2000) 284 Journal of the American Medical Association 2907.
  • Breitbart, W. “The physician's role in physician-assisted suicide” (2012) 10:04 Palliative and Supportive Care 237.
  • Breitbart, W. et al. “Impact of Treatment for Depression on Desire for Hastened Death in Patients with Advanced AIDS” (2010) 51:2 Psychosomatics 98.
  • Broekman, M.L.D. & J.S.A. Verlooy. “Attitudes of young neurosurgeons and neurosurgical residents towards euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide” (2013) 155:11 Acta Neurochirurgica 2191.
  • Buiting, H.M. et al. “Palliative treatment alternatives and euthanasia consultations: a qualitative interview study” (2011) 42:1 Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 32.
  • Cholbi, M.J. “The terminal, the futile, and the psychiatrically disordered” (2013) 36:5 International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 498.
  • Clark, C. & G. Kimsma. ““Medical friendships” in assisted dying” (2004) 13:1 Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 61.
  • Clarke, L. “Mental health nursing and the debate on assisted dying” (2013) 20 Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 655.
  • Coggon, J. “The wonder of euthanasia: A debate that’s being done to death” (2013) 33:2 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 401.
  • Coma, L.M.; J. Caimey & D.L. Streiner. “Suicide ideation in older adults: Relationship to mental health problems and service use” (2010) 50:6 Gerontologist 785.
  • Davila, S.L.R.; E. Vidal; J.T. Stewart & M. T. Caserta. “Management of a request for physician-assisted suicide” (2010) 27:1 American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine 63.
  • Dees, M. et al. “Unbearable suffering of patients with a request for euthanasia or physician‐assisted suicide: an integrative review” (2010) 19:4 Psycho‐Oncology 339.
  • Delbeke, E. “The way assisted suicide is legalised: balancing a medical framework against a demedicalised model” (2011) 18:2 European Journal of Health Law 149.
  • Denier, Y.; B.D. de Casterlé; N. De Bal & C. Gastmans. ““It’s intense, you know.” Nurses’ experiences in caring for patients requesting euthanasia” (2010) 13:1 Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 41.
  • Dore, M.K. “Physician-assisted suicide: A recipe for elder abuse and the illusion of personal choice” (2011) 27 Vermont Bar Journal 1.
  • Downie, J.; K. Chambaere & J.L. Bernheim. “Pereira’s attack on legalizing euthanasia or assisted suicide: Smoke and mirrors” (2012) 19:3 Current Oncology 133.
  • Draper, B.; C. Peisah; J. Snowdon & H. Brodaty. “Early dementia diagnosis and the risk of suicide and euthanasia” (2010) 6:1 Alzheimer's & Dementia 75.
  • Emanuel, E.J. et al. “Attitudes and desires related to euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide among terminally ill patients, and their caregivers” (2000) 284 Journal of the American Medical Association 2460.
  • Emanuel, E.J.; D.L. Fairdough & L.L. Emanuel. “Attitudes and desires related to euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide among terminally ill patients and their caregivers” (2000) 284 Journal of the American Medical Association 2460.
  • Fass, J. & A. Fass. “Physician-assisted suicide: Ongoing challenges for pharmacists” (2011) 68 American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 846.
  • Finlay, I. “Crossing the bright light–difficult decision at the end of life” (2006) 6:4 Clinical Medicine 1.
  • Gamliel, E. “To end life or not to prolong life: The effect of message framing on attitudes toward euthanasia” (2013) 18:5 Journal of Health Psychology 693.
  • Ganzini, L. et al. “Evaluation of Competence to Consent to Assisted Suicide: Views of Forensic Psychiatrists” (2000) 157 American Journal of Psychiatry 595.
  • Ganzini, L.; E.R. Goy & S.K. Dobscha. “Prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients requesting physicians aid in dying: cross sectional survey” (2008) 337:1682 British Medical Journal 1.
  • Gather, J. & J. Vollmann. “Physician-assisted suicide of patients with dementia. A medical ethical analysis with a special focus on patient autonomy” (2013) 36:5 International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 444.
  • Gill, C.J. “No, we don't think our doctors are out to get us: Responding to the straw man distortions of disability rights arguments against assisted suicide” (2010) 3:1 Disability and Health Journal 31.
  • Gillett, G. & J. Chamberlain. “The clinician's dilemma: Two dimensions of ethical care” (2013) 36:5 International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 454.
  • Golden, M. & T. Zoanni. “Killing us softly; the dangers of legalizing assisted suicide” (2010) 3 Disability and Health Journal 16.
  • Gopal, A.A. “Physician-assisted suicide: Considering the evidence, existential distress, and an emerging role for psychiatry” (2015) 43:2 Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 183.
  • Gunn III, J.F. & D. Lester. “Moral development and perceptions of attempted suicide and physician-assisted suicide” (2010) 107:3 Psychological Reports 697.
  • Hagens, M.; H.R. Pasman & B.D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen. “Cross-sectional research into counselling for non-physician assisted suicide: who asks for it and what happens?” (2014) 14:1 BMC Health Services Research 455.
  • Hains, C.A.M. & N.J. Hulbert-Williams. “Attitudes toward euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide: a study of the multivariate effects of healthcare training, patient characteristics, religion and locus of control” (2013) 39:11 Journal of Medical Ethics 713.
  • Harris, C.D. “Physician-assisted suicide: A nurse's perspective” (2014) 44:3 Nursing 55.
  • Harvath, T.A. et al. “Dilemmas Encountered by Hospice Workers When Patients Wish to Hasten Death” (2006) 8 Journal of Hospice Palliative Nursing 200.
  • Hendry, M. et al. “Why do we want the right to die? A systematic review of the international literature on the views of patients, carers and the public on assisted dying” (2013) 27:1 Palliative Medicine 13.
  • Hudson, P. L. et al. “Legalizing physician-assisted suicide and/or euthanasia: Pragmatic implications” (2015) 13:5 Palliative & Supportive Care 1.
  • Hudson, P.L. et al. “Desire for hastened death in patients with advanced disease and the evidence base of clinical guidelines: a systematic review” (2006) 20:7 Palliative Medicine 693.
  • Hudson, P. et al. “Responding to desire to die statements from patients with advanced disease: recommendations for health professionals” (2006) 20:7 Palliative Medicine 703.
  • Huxtable, R. “Splitting the difference? Principled compromise and assisted dying” (2014) 28:9 Bioethics 472.
  • Jamison, S. “Factors to consider before participating in a hastened death: Issues for medical professionals” (2000) 6 Psychology Public Policy Law 416.
  • Jansen-van der Weide, M.C.; B.D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen & G. van der Wal. “Granted, undecided, withdrawn, and refused requests for euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide” (2005) 165 Archives of Internal Medicine 1698.
  • Johnson, S.M. et al. “The role of and challenges for psychologists in physician assisted suicide” (2014) 38:9 Death Studies 582.
  • Johnstone, M.J. “Organization position statements and the stance of “studied neutrality” on euthanasia in palliative care” (2012) 44:6 Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 896.
  • Joiner, T.E. Why people die by suicide, (Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press, 2005)
  • Jones, D.A. “Is there a logical slippery slope from voluntary to non-voluntary euthanasia?” (2011) 21:4 Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 379.
  • Jones, J.M. et al. “Symptomatic distress, hopelessness, and the desire for hastened death in hospitalized cancer patients” (2003) 55:5 Journal of Psychosomatic Research 411.
  • Karlsson, M.; A. Milberg & P. Strang. “Suffering and euthanasia: a qualitative study of dying cancer patients’ perspectives” (2012) 20 Support Care Cancer 1065.
  • Kelly, B. D. et al. “Factors associated with the wish to hasten death: A study of patients with terminal illness” (2003) 33 Psychological Medicine 75.
  • Kelly, B.D. & D.M. McLoughlin. “Euthanasia, assisted suicide and psychiatry: A Pandora’s Box” (2002) 181 British Journal of Psychiatry 278.
  • Keown, J. Euthanasia, Ethics and Public Policy: An Argument against Legalisation. (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002).
  • Keown, J. & E. Jackson. Debating Euthanasia, (Oxford, UK: Hart Publishing, 2002).
  • Kimsma, G.K. & E. van Leeuwen. “The role of family in euthanasia decision making” (2007) 19:4 HEC Forum 365.
  • Kleespies, P.M.; O.N. Hughes & F.P. Gallacher. “Suicide in the medically and terminally ill: Psychological and ethical considerations” (2000) 56 Journal of Clinical Psychology 1153.
  • Lachman, V. “Physician-assisted suicide: Compassionate liberation or murder” (2010) 19:2 Medsurg Nursing 121.
  • Lavery, J.V. et al. “Origins of the desire for euthanasia and assisted suicide in people with HIV-1 or AIDS: a qualitative study” (2001) Lancet 362.
  • Lee, M.L. et al. “Euthanasia and depression: a prospective cohort study among terminally ill cancer patients” (2005) 23 Journal of Clinical Oncology 6607.
  • Leeman, C.P. “Distinguishing among irrational suicide and other forms of hastened death: Implications for clinical practice” (2009) 50 Psychosomatics 185.
  • Lemiengre, J. et al. “Written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia: an empirical-based organizational-ethical framework” (2014) 17:2 Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 215.
  • Lesser, H. “Should it be legal to assist suicide?” (2010) 16:2 Journal of evaluation in clinical practice 330.
  • Levene, I. & M. Parker. “Prevalence of depression in granted and refused requests for euthanasia and assisted suicide: a systematic review” (2011) 37:4 Journal of Medical Ethics 205.
  • Lewis, P. “Informal Legal change on assisted suicide: the policy for prosecutors” (2011) 31:1 Legal Studies 119.
  • ―――. Assisted Dying and Legal Change (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2007).
  • Lipuma, S. “Continuous sedation until death as physician-assisted suicide/euthanasia: a conceptual analysis” (2013) 38:2 Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 190.
  • Loewy E.H. “Terminal Sedation, self-starvation, and orchestrating the end of life” (2001) 161 Archives of Internal Medicine 329.
  • Maessen, M. et al. “Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a prospective study” (2014) 261:10 Journal of Neurology 1894.
  • Malpas, P.J. et al. “Why do older people oppose physician-assisted dying? A qualitative study” (2014) 28:4 Palliative Medicine 353.
  • Maltoni, M. et al. “Palliative sedation therapy does not hasten death: results from a prospective multicentre study” (2009) 20 Annals of Oncology 1163.
  • Mason, E.R. “Ignoring It Will Not Make It Go Away: Guidelines for Statutory Regulation of Physician-Assisted Death” (2010) 45 New England Law Review 139.
  • Materstvedt, L.J. et al. “Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide: a view from an EAPC Ethics Task Force” (2003) 17 Palliative Medicine 97.
  • Materstvedt, L.J. “Palliative care ethics: The problems of combining palliation and assisted dying” (2013) 21:3 Progress in Palliative Care 158.
  • Maytal, G. & T.A. Stem. “The desire for death in the setting of terminal illness. A case discussion. Prim Care Companion.” (2006) 8 Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 299.
  • McClain-Jacobson, C. et al. “Belief in an afterlife, spiritual well-being and end-of-life despair in patients with advanced cancer” (2004) 26 General Hospital Psychiatry 484.
  • McCormack, R. & R. Fléchais. “The role of psychiatrists and mental disorder in assisted dying practices around the world: a review of the legislation and official reports” (2012) 53:4 Psychosomatics 319.
  • Mendelson, D & M. Bagaric. “Assisted suicide through the prism of the right to life” (2013) 36:5 International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 406.
  • Menzel, PT & B. Steinbock. “Advance directives, dementia, and physician‐assisted death” (2013) 41:2 The Journal of Law Medicine & Ethics 484.
  • Michlowski, S. “Legalising active voluntary euthanasia through the courts: some lessons from Columbia” (2009) 17 Medical Law Review 183.
  • Monforte-Royo, C. et al. “The wish to hasten death: A review of clinical studies” (2011) 20:8 Psycho-oncology 795.
  • Morita, T. et al. “Desire for death and requests to hasten death of Japanese terminally ill cancer patients receiving specialized inpatient palliative care” (2004) 27 Journal of Pain Symptom Management 44.
  • Mortier, T.; R. Leiva & R. Cohen-Almagor. “Between Palliative Care and Euthanasia” online (2015) Bioethical Inquiry.
  • Mystakidou, K. et al. “Desire for death near the end of life: the role of depression, anxiety and pain” (2005) 27 General Hospital Psychiatry 258.
  • Neimeyer, R.A. “Suicide and hastened death: Toward a training agenda for counseling psychology” (2000) 28 Couns Psychol 551.
  • Nissim, R.; L. Gagliese & G. Rodin. “The desire for hastened death in individuals with advanced cancer: A longitudinal qualitative study” (2009) 69:2 Social Science and Medicine 165.
  • O’Mahoney, S. et al. “Desire for hastened death, cancer pain and depression: Report of a longitudinal observational study” (2005) 29 Journal of Pain Symptom Management 446.
  • Obstein, K.L.; G.K. Kimsma & T. Chambers. “Practicing euthanasia: the perspective of physicians” (2004) 15:3 Journal Clinical Ethics 223.
  • Ogden, R.D. “The debreather: a report on euthanasia and suicide assistance using adapted scuba technology” (2010) 34:4 Death studies 291.
  • Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D. et al. “The last phase of life: who requests and who receives euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide?” (2010) 48:7 Medical Care 596.
  • Orentlicher, D. “Aging populations and physician aid in dying: The evolution of state government policy” (2014) 48 Indiana Law Review 111.
  • Parpa, E. et al. “Attitudes of health care professionals, relatives of advanced cancer patients and public towards euthanasia and physician assisted suicide” (2010) 97:2 Health Policy 160.
  • Pasman, H.R.W.; D.L. Willems & B.D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen. “What happens after a request for euthanasia is refused? Qualitative interviews with patients, relatives and physicians” (2013) 92:3 Patient Education and Counseling 313.
  • Patterson, C. “A History of Ideas Concerning the Morality of Suicide, Assisted Suicide, and Voluntary Euthanasia” (2005).
  • Pearlman, R.A. et al. “Motivations for Physician-assisted Suicide - Patient and Family Voices” (2005) 20:3 Journal of General Internal Medicine 234.
  • Pereira, J. “Legalizing euthanasia or assisted suicide: the illusion of safeguards and controls” (2011) 18:2 Current Oncology e38.
  • Plaisted, D. “An undignified side of death with dignity legislation” (2013) 23:3 Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 201.
  • Pousset, G. et al. “Attitudes and practices of physicians regarding physician-assisted dying in minors” (2010) Archives of Disease in Childhood 182139.
  • Prokopetz, J.J. & L.S. Lehmann. “Redefining physicians' role in assisted dying” (2012) 367:2 New England Journal of Medicine 97.
  • Quill, T.E. “Physicians should “assist in suicide” when it is appropriate” (2012) 40:1 The Journal of Law Medicine & Ethics 57.
  • Raus, K.; S. Sterckx & F. Mortier. “Is continuous sedation at the end of life an ethically preferable alternative to physician-assisted suicide?” (2011) 11:6 The American Journal of Bioethics 32.
  • Rietjens, J.A. et al. “Medical end-of-life decisions: does its use differ in vulnerable patient groups? A systematic review and meta-analysis” (2012) 74:8 Social Science & Medicine 1282.
  • Robinson, J. “Baxter and the return of physician-assisted suicide” (2010) 40:6 Hastings Center Report 15.
  • Robson, A. et al. “The risk of suicide in cancer patients: a review of the literature” (2010) 19:12 Psychooncology 1250Rodin, G. et al. “The desire for hastened death in patients with metastatic cancer” (2007) 33:6 Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 661.
  • Rosenfeld, B. et al. “The Schedule of Attitudes toward Hastened Death Measuring desire for death in terminally ill cancer patients” (2000) 88 Cancer 2868.
  • Rosenfeld, B. “Assisted suicide, depression, and the right to die” (2000) 6 Psychology, Public Policy and Law 467.
  • ―――. “Methodological issues in assisted suicide and euthanasia research” (2000) 6 Psychol Public Policy Law 559.
  • Rosenfeld, B. et al. “Desire for Hastened Death among Patients with Advanced AIDS” (2006) 47:6 Psychosomatics 504.
  • Rubin, E. “Assisted suicide, morality, and law: Why prohibiting assisted suicide violates the Establishment Clause” (2010) 63 Vanderbilt Law Review 761.
  • Rurup, M.L. et al. “The reporting of rate of euthanasia and physicians-assisted suicide. A study of the trends” (2008) 46 Medical Care 1198.
  • Rurup, M.L. et al. “Requests for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide from older persons who do not have a severe disease: An interview study” (2005) 35 Psychological Medicine 665.
  • Safyan, A.R. “A call for international regulation of the thriving industry of death tourism.” (2010) 33 Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review 287.
  • Scoccia, D. “Physician-assisted suicide, disability, and paternalism” (2010) 36:3 Social Theory and Practice 479.
  • Shariff, M.J. “A Perfection of Means, and Confusion of Aims: Finding the Essence of Autonomy in Assisted Death Laws” (2011) 31:4 Health Law in Canada 81.
  • ―――. “Immortal Beloved and Beleaguered: Towards the Integration of the Law on Assisted Death and the Scientific Pursuit of Life Extension” (2010) 31:1 Health Law in Canada.
  • ―――. “Navigating Assisted Death and End-of-Life Care” (2011) 183:6 Canadian Medical Association Journal 643.
  • ―――. “Slow down on assisted suicide” (2010) 30:4 The Lawyers Weekly.
  • ―――. “The dying need proper care before we settle assisted suicide” (2010) 30:13 The Lawyers Weekly.
  • ―――. “Assisted death and the slippery slope—finding clarity amid advocacy, convergence, and complexity” (2012) 19:3 Current Oncology 143.
  • Silverman, M.M. “Rational suicide, hastened death, and self-destructive behaviors” (2000) 28 Journal of Counseling Psychology 540.
  • Siu, W. “Communities of interpretation: euthanasia and assisted suicide debate” (2010) 20:2 Critical Public Health 169.
  • Sjöstrand, M. et al. “Autonomy-based arguments against physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia: a critique” (2013) 16:2 Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 225.
  • Smith, K.A. et al. “Quality of death and dying in patients who request physician-assisted death” (2011) 14:4 Journal of Palliative Medicine 445.
  • Smith, K.A. et al. “Predictors of pursuit of physician-assisted death.” (2015) 49:3 Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 555.
  • Spoletini, I. et al. “Suicide and Cancer: Where do we go from here?” (2011) 78:3 Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology 206.
  • Starks, H. et al. “Family Member Involvement in Hastened Death” (2007) 31 Death Studies 105.
  • Starks, H. et al. “Why Now? Timing and Circumstances of Hastened Deaths” (2005) 30:3 Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 215.
  • Steck, N. et al. “Suicide assisted by right-to-die associations: a population based cohort study” (2014) 43:2 International Journal of Epidemiology 614.
  • Stevens, K.R. “Emotional and Psychological Effects of Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia on Participating Physicians” (2006) 21:3 Issues in Law and Medicine 187.
  • Su, A.M. “Physician assisted suicide: Debunking the myths surrounding the elderly, poor and disabled” (2013) 10 Hastings Race & Poverty Law Journal 145.
  • Sumner, LW. Assisted Death – A Study in Ethics and Law. 1st ed (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2011).
  • Sykes, N. & A. Thorns. “Sedative use in the last week of life arid the implications for end-of life decision making” (2003) 163:3 Archives of Internal Medicine 341.
  • Syme, R. A Good Death – An argument for voluntary euthanasia, (Melbourne, Australia: Melbourne University Press, 2008).
  • Ten Have, H. & J.V. Welie. “Palliative sedation versus euthanasia: an ethical assessment” (2014) 47:1 Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 123.
  • Tieman, E. et al. “Relations between desire for early death, depressive symptoms and antidepressant prescribing in terminally ill patients with cancer” (2002) 95 Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 386.
  • Titterington, V.B.; P.M. Rivolta & S. Schraufnagel. “Right-to-die legislation: A note on factors associated with its adoption” (2013) 33:4 Sociological Spectrum 358.
  • Tomlinson, E. & J. Stott. “Assisted dying in dementia: a systematic review of the international literature on the attitudes of health professionals, patients, carers and the public, and the factors associated with these” (2015) 30:1 International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 10.
  • Torjesen, I. “More people opt to use assisted dying laws for great variety of reasons.” British Medical Journal 2015; 351.
  • Tsou, J.Y. “Depression and suicide are natural kinds: Implications for physician-assisted suicide” (2013) 36:5 International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 461.
  • Tucker, R.P. et al. “Does the experience of interpersonal predictors of suicidal desire predict positive attitudes toward physician assisted suicide?” (2014) 69:2 OMEGA-Journal of Death and Dying 137.
  • Turk, T. “On the Moral and Social Implications of Legalized Euthanasia: An Argument for the Moral Permissibility of Euthanasia and an Evaluation of the Leading Moral and Social Objections to Legalized Euthanasia in Support of the Continuation of Death with Dignity Initiatives.” (LLM Thesis, Lawrence University 2002) [unpublished].
  • Unützer, J. et al. “Reducing suicidal ideation in depressed older primary care patients” (2006) 54 Journal of the American Geriatric Society 1550.
  • Van Norman, G.A. “Physician aid-in-dying: cautionary words” (2014) 27:2 Current Opinion in Anesthesiology 177.
  • Varelius, J. “Voluntary euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and the right to do wrong” (2013) 25(3) HEC forum 229.
  • Vizcarrondo, F.E. “Neonatal euthanasia: The Groningen Protocol” (2014) 81:4 The Linacre Quarterly 388.
  • Wagner, B. et al. “Social acknowledgement as a predictor of post-traumatic stress and complicated grief after witnessing assisted suicide” (2012) 58:4 International Journal of Social Psychiatry 381.
  • Wasserfallen, J.B.; R. Chioléro & F. Stiefel. “Assisted Suicide in an Acute Care Hospital: 18 Months Experience” (2000) 138:15-16 Swiss Medical Weekly 239.
  • Wilson, K. et al. “Desire for Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide in Palliative Cancer Care” (2007) 26:3 Health Psychology 314.
  • Wittwer, H. “The problem of the possible rationality of suicide and the ethics of physician assisted suicide” (2013) 36:5 International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 419.
  • Wolf, S.M. “Assessing physician compliance with the rules for euthanasia and assisted suicide” (2005) 165 Archives in Internal Medicine 1677.
  • Ziegler S.J. & Bosshard G. “Role of non-governmental organizations in physician assisted suicide” (2007) 334 British Medical Journal.
  • Foley, K. & H. Hendin. The Case Against Assisted Suicide: For the Right to End-of-Life Care (Baltimore, US: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002).

International, Regional or Governmental Documents and Reports

Canada

  • Government of Canada, The Human Face of Mental Health and Mental Illness in Canada (2006)
  • Library of Parliament, Background Paper - Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide: International Experiences, Publication No. 2011-67-E.
  • Canada, Library of Parliament, Background Paper - Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide in Canada, (Publication No. 2010-68-E).
  • Parliament of Canada, Parliamentary Committee on Palliative and Compassionate Care, Not to be Forgotten – Re-Writing the Disability Chapter in Canada: A Functional, Forward-Looking Approach (March 2015) (Co-Chairs: Joe Comartin, Harold Albrecht and Frank Valeriote).
  • Parliament of Canada, Parliamentary Committee on Palliative and Compassionate Care, Not to be Forgotten – Care of Vulnerable Canadians (November 2011) (Co-Chairs: Joe Comartin, Harold Albrecht and Frank Valeriote).
  • Provincial-Territorial Expert Advisory Group on Physician-Assisted Dying, Final Report (November 2015).
  • Quebec, Select Committee on Dying with Dignity, Consultation Document (Quebec, Committees Secretariat of the National Assembly of Québec, 2010)
  • Quebec, Select Committee on Dying with Dignity, Report (Quebec, Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, 2012).
  • Senate of Canada, Subcommittee of the Standing Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology, Quality End-of-Life Care: The Right of Every Canadian (June 2000) (Chair: Hon. Sharon Carstairs).
  • Senate of Canada, Special Senate Committee on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide, Of Life and Death – Final Report (June 1995).

Canadian consultations

  • House of Commons and Senate, Special Committee on Physician-Assisted Dying, Medical Assistance in Dying: A Patient –Centred Approach (February 2016) (Joint Chairs: Hon. Kelvin Kenneth Ogilvie and Robert Oliphant).
  • External Panel on Options for a Legislative Response to Carter v. Canada, Consultations on Physician-Assisted Dying – Summary of Results and Key Findings - Final Report (December 15 2015).
  • Canadian Medical Association, Principles-based Recommendations for a Canadian Approach to Assisted Dying (2016).
  • Canadian Medical Association, End-of-Life Care: A National Dialogue – CMA Member Consultation Report (July 2014).
  • Canadian Medical Association, End-of-Life Care: A National Dialogue (June 2014).
  • College of Family Physicians of Canada, A Guide for Reflection on Ethical Issues Concerning Assisted Suicide and Voluntary Euthanasia (September 2015).

Legislation

Canada

  • Quebec, Bill 52, An Act Respecting End-of-Life Care, 1st session, 41st Leg., Quebec, 2014 (assented to 10 June 2014), LRQ c S-32.

International statutes

United States

  • US, RS 127.805, The Oregon Death with Dignity Act, Or, 1994 (enacted 27 October 1997).
  • US, RCW 70.245, The Washington Death with Dignity Act, Wash, 2008 (enacted 5 March 2009).
  • US, S-77, An Act relating to Patient Choice and Control at End of Life, 2013-2014 Reg Sess, Vt, 2013 (enacted 20 May 2013).
  • US, SB-128, End of Life Option Act, 2015-2016 Re Sess, Cal, 2015 (enacted October 2015).

Belgium

  • Belgium, Loi relative à l’euthanasie (enacted 28 May 2002).
  • Belgium, Loi modifiant la loi du 28 mai 2002 relative à l'euthanasie, en vue d'étendre l'euthanasie aux mineurs (enacted 28 February 2014).

Luxembourg

  • Luxembourg, Loi du 16 mars 2009 sur l’euthanasie et l’assistance au suicide (enacted 16 March 2009).

The Netherlands

  • The Netherlands, Termination of Life on Request and Assisted Suicide (Review Procedures) Act (enacted 1 April 2002).

Columbia

  • Republic of Columbia, Ministry of Health and Social Protection (20 April 2015), Resolution 1216 of 2015.

Latest international reports

  • The Netherlands, Regionale Toetsingscommissies Euthanasie, Jaaverslag 2014. (in Dutch).
  • Belgium, Commission fédérale de contrôle et d’évaluation sur l’euthanasie, Sixième rapport aux Chambres Législatives, 2012-2013.
  • Luxembourg, Commission Nationale de Contrôle et d’Évaluation de la loi du 16 mars 2009 sur l’euthanasie et l’assistance au suicide, Deuxième rapport à l’attention de la Chambre des Députés, 2011-2012.
  • Oregon Public Health Division, Oregon’s Death with Dignity Act – 2014.
  • Washington State Department of Health, Washington State Department of Health 2014 Death with Dignity Act Report.
  • The Netherlands, NIVEL Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Palliative care for terminally ill patients in the Netherlands (The Hague, Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, 2003).

Other Reports (Opinion pieces, literature reviews, issue papers, etc.)

  • Canadian Hospice Palliative Care Association, The Way Forward National Framework – A Roadmap for an Integrated Palliative Approach to Care (March 2015).
  • KNMG. “The role of the physician in the voluntary termination of life” (2011).
  • Lewis Penney & Isra Black. The effectiveness of legal safeguards in jurisdictions that allow assisted dying. Report commissioned by The Commission on Assisted Dying (London: Centre of Medical Law Ethics, Kings College, 2012).
  • Royal Society of Canada Expert Panel, End of Life Decision-Making (November 2011).
  • University of Toronto, Joint Centre for Bioethics, Task Force on Physician Assisted Death. After Carter v. Canada: Physician Assisted Death in Canada – Report and Recommendations (December 2015).
Date modified: