Article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and Children’s Participatory Rights in Canada

List of Resources

Legislation

  • Adoption Act, R.S.B.C., c. 5.
  • Adoption Act, R.S.P.E.I., c. A-4.1.
  • Adoption Act, S.N.L. 2013, c. A-3.1.
  • Adoption Act, S.N.W.T. (Nu.) 1998, c. 9.
  • Advance Health Care Directives Act, S.N.L. 1995, c. A-4.1.
  • The Adoption Act, C.C.S.M., c. A-2.
  • The Adoption Act, S.S. 1989-90, c. A-5.1.
  • Care Consent Act, S.Y. 2003, c. 21.
  • Child and Family Services Act, C.C.S.M. 1985, c. C-80.
  • Child and Family Services Act, S.N.W.T. (Nu.) 1997, c. 13.
  • Child and Family Services Act, S.N.S. 1990, c. 5.
  • Child and Family Services Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. C-11.
  • Child and Family Services Act, S.S. 1989-90, c. C-7.2.
  • Child and Family Services Act, S.Y. 2008, c. 1.
  • Child, Family and Community Service Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 46.
  • Child Protection Act, S.P.E.I. 2000, c. 3.
  • Child, Youth and Family Services Act, S.N. 1998, c. C-12.1.
  • Child, Youth and Family Enhancement Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. C-12.
  • Children and Family Services Act, S.N.S. 1990, c.5.
  • Children’s Law Act, S.N.W.T. (Nu.) 1997, c. 14.
  • Children’s Law Act, R.S.N.L. 1990, c. C-13, 71(2).
  • Children’s Law Act, R.S.Y. 2002, c. 31.
  • Children’s Law Reform Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. C-12.
  • Children and Youth Care and Protection Act, S.N.L. 2010, c. C-12.2.
  • Civil Code of Québec, C.Q.L.R. 1991, c. C-1991.
  • Code of Civil Procedure, R.S.Q. c. C-25.
  • Consent to Treatment and Health Care Directives Act, S.P.E.I. 1996, c. 10.
  • Courts of Justice Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. C-43.
  • Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act, R.S.P.E.I. 1988, c. C-33.
  • Family Law Act, S.B.C. 2011, c. 25.
  • Family Law Act, S.A. 2003, c. F-4.5.
  • Family Services Act, S.N.B. 1980, c. F-2.2.
  • Health Care Consent Act, 1996, S.O. 1996, c. 2.
  • The Health Care Directives Act, S.M. 1998, c. 36, C.C.S.M. c. M110.
  • The Health Care Directives and Substitute Health Care Decision Makers Act, S.S. 1997, c. H-0.001.
  • Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, S.C. 2001, c. 27.
  • Infants Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 223.
  • Intercountry Adoption Act, 1998, S.O. 1998, c. 29.
  • Medical Consent of Minors Act, S.N.B. 1976, c. M-6.1.
  • Personal Directives Act, R.S.A. 2000, c. P-6.
  • Youth Criminal Justice Act, S.C. 2002, c. 1.
  • Young Offenders Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. Y-1.

Cases

  • A.C. v. Manitoba (Director of Child and Family Services), 2009 SCC 30.
  • A.M.R.I. v. K.E.R., 2011 O.J. 2449 (C.A.).
  • B. (A.C.) v. B. (R.), 2010 ONCA 714.
  • Baker v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [1999] 2 S.C.R. 817.
  • Beatty v. Schatz, 2009 BCSC 706, 2009 CarswellBC 1402 (B.C.S.C.).
  • Boukema v. Boukema, [1997] O.J. 2903 (Ont. Sup. Ct.).
  • British Columbia (Director of Child, Family & Community Services) v. J. (P.M.), 1999 CarswellBC 1466.
  • C. (A.) v. A. (V.), 2012 ONCJ 7.
  • C. (A.B.) v. Nova Scotia (Minister of Community Services), 2003 CarswellNS 496 (S.C.).
  • C. (M.A.) v. K. (M.), 2008 ONCJ 212.
  • Child & Family Services of Winnipeg West v. G. (N.J.) (1990), 69 Man. R. (2d) 43.
  • Children’s Aid Society of London and Middlesex v. C. (A.), 2013 ONSC 1870.
  • Christopher v. Christopher, [1987] W.D.F.L. No. 146 (Nfld. T.D.).
  • D. (K.R.) v. K. (C.K.), 2013 NBQB 211.
  • Den Ouden v. Laframboise, 2006 ABCA 403.
  • Duale v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship & Immigration), 2004 FC 150.
  • Dudman v. Dudman, [1990] O.J. 3246 (Prov. Ct.).
  • Eaton v Brant County Board of Education, [1996] S.C.J. 98, [1997] 1 S.C.R. 241.
  • F. (M.) v. L. (J.) (2002), 211 D.L.R. (4th) 350 (Que. C.A.).
  • G. (B.J.) v. G. (D.L.), 2010 YKSC 44.
  • G.B. v. V.M, [2012] O.J. No. 5825 (O.C.J.).
  • G. (J.A.) v. R. (R.J.), 1998 CarswellOnt 1487 (Ont. Gen. Div.).
  • Ganie v. Ganie, 2014 ONSC 7500.
  • Garcia Perez v. Polet, 2014 MBCA 83.
  • Gilles v Toronto District School Board, [2015] O.J. 833 (S.C.).
  • Godard v Godard, 2015 ONCA 568.
  • Hall v Powers, [2002] O.J. 1803 (S.C.).
  • Hawthorne v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2003] 2 F.C. 555 (CA).
  • H. (P.) v. Eastern Regional Integrated Health Authority, 2010 NLTD 34.
  • Houle v. Poulin, 1998 CarswellOnt 556 (Ont. Prov. Div.).
  • J. (K.M.) v. New Brunswick (Minister of Social Development), 2011 NBQB 345.
  • J.S. v R.M., 2012 ABPC 184.
  • Jandrisch v. Jandrisch (1980), 16 R.F.L. (2d) 239 (Man. C.A.).
  • Jespersen v. Jespersen, (1985), 48 R.F.L. (2d) 193 (B.C.C.A.).
  • Jewish Family and Child Service of Greater Toronto v. K. (S.), 2013 ONCJ 681.
  • John v John, 2012 NSSC 324.
  • K. (N.N.) v. L (S.F.), 2014 BCPC 297.
  • Kalaserk v. Nelson, 2005 NWTSC 4.
  • Keeping v. Keeping, [2004] N.J. 293 (U.F.C.).
  • Lafferty v. Angiers, 2013 NWTSC 3.
  • Legault v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2002] 4 F.C. 358 (C.A.)
  • Livingstone v. Trainor, [2004] P.E.I.J. 78 (S.C.T.D.).
  • M (D.G.) v. M. (K.M.), [2000] A.J. 1001 (Q.B.).
  • M. B.-W. v R.Q., 2015 NLCA 28.
  • Manalang v. Canada (Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness), 2007 FC 1368.
  • New Brunswick (Minister of Social Development) v. C. (V.),2014 NBQB 95.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador (Manager of Child, Youth and Family Services Zone J) v. W. (J.), 2015 NLTD(F) 11.
  • O’Connell v. McIndoe, 1998 CarswellBC 2223 (B.C.C.A.).
  • Puszczak v. Puszczak, 2005 ABCA 426.
  • R. v. C. (G.), 2010 ONSC 115.
  • R v D.(B.), 2008 SCC 25.
  • R. v. J.S.R., [2012] O.J. 4063 (CA).
  • R. v. Khan, [1990] 2 S.C.R. 531.
  • R. v. L.T.H., [2008] S.C.J. No. 50.
  • R.M. v J.S., 2009 CarswellBC 1402 (B.C.S.C.).
  • R.M. v J.S., 2012 ABQB 669.
  • R.M. v J.S., 2013 ABCA 441.
  • Re Children’s Aid Society of London & Middlesex, 2010 ONSC 1348.
  • Re D (A Child) (Abduction: Rights of Custody), [2006] UKHL 51, [2007] 1 AC 619.
  • Re F. (T.L.), 2001 SKQB 271.
  • Re L. (G.), 2012 SKQB 388.
  • Re L.C., [2014] UKSC 1.
  • Re M (Children) (Abduction: Rights of Custody),[2007] UKHL 55, [2008] 1 AC 1288.
  • Re P. (G.),2003 SKQB 505.
  • S. (M.A.) v. S. (J.S.), 2012 NBQB 285.
  • S.G.B. v. S.J.L., 2010 ONCA 578.
  • Stefureak v. Chambers, 2004 CarswellOnt 4244, 6 R.F.L. (6th) 212 (Ont. S.C.J).
  • Strobridge v. Strobridge (1994), 18 O.R. (3d) 753 (Ont. C.A.).
  • U. (A.J.) v. U. (G.S.), 2015 ABQB 6. 
  • U. (C.) (Next Friend of) v. Alberta (Director of Child Welfare), 2003 ABCA 66.
  • W. (M.) v. British Columbia (Director of Child, Family & Community Service), 2004 CarswellBC 2908, 2004 BCPC 452.
  • Wagner v. Melton, 2012 NWTSC 41.

International Treaties

  • Convention on the Rights of the Child, UN Doc. A/RES/44/25 (20 November 1989).
  • Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, UNTS, vol. 189, p. 137, CTS 1969/6.
  • Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, Can. T.S. 1983, No. 35.
  • Hague Convention of 29 May 1993 on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoptions.

Secondary Sources

  • Abramovitch, Rona; Michele Peterson-Badali & Meg Rohan. “Young People's Understanding and Assertion of Their Rights to Silence and Legal Counsel” (1995) 37 Can. J. Crim. 1.
  • Alberta, Court of Queen’s Bench. “Family Law Practice Note 8: Parenting Time/Parenting Responsibilities Assessments,” online: Alberta Courts online:
    https://albertacourts.ca/docs/default-source/Court-of-Queen's-Bench/pn8-bi-lateral-assessment---final.pdf?sfvrsn=0.
  • Bala, Nicholas. "Bringing Canada’s Divorce Act into the New Millennium: Enacting a Child-Focused Parenting Law"(2015) 40:2 Queen’s L. J. 425-482.
  • Bala, Nicholas. “Child Representation in Alberta: Role and Responsibilities of Counsel for the Child” (2006) 43 Alta. L. Rev. 845.
  • Bala, Nicholas. "Double Victims: Child Sexual Abuse and the Criminal Justice System" (1990) 15 Queen's L.J. 3.
  • Bala, Nicholas. “The Voice of Children in Alberta Family Law Cases” (Paper presented to the Legal Education Society of Alberta for Children’s Lawyers in Calgary and Edmonton, April 2005) [unpublished].
  • Bala, Nicholas & Patricia Hebert. “Views, Perspectives and Experiences of Children in Family Cases” (Paper presented to the National Judicial Institute Program on Judicial Interviews of Children and the National Family Law Program, July 2014) [unpublished].
  • Bala, Nicholas & Mary Jo Maur. "The Hague Convention on Child Abduction: A Canadian Primer” (2014) 33 Can. Fam. L.Q. 267.
  • Bala, Nicholas; Rachel Birnbaum & Lorne Bertrand. “Controversy about the Role Children’s Lawyers: Advocate or Best Interests Guardian? Comparing Attitudes & Practices in Alberta & Ontario – Two Provinces with Different Policies” (2013) 51 Fam. Ct. Rev. 681.
  • Bala, Nicholas; Rachel Birnbaum & Francine Cyr. “Judicial Interviews of Children in Canada's Family Courts” in Tali Gal & Benedetta Durmay, eds. International Perspectives and Empirical Findings on Child Participation: From Social Exclusion to Child-Inclusive Policies (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015) 135.
  • Bala, Nicholas; Angela D. Evans & Emily Bala. “Hearing the Voices of Children in Canada’s Criminal Justice System: Recognizing Capacity and Facilitating Testimony” (2010), 22 Child & Family Law Quarterly (U.K.) 21.
  • Bala, Nicholas; Rachel Birnbaum, Francine Cyr & Denise McColley. “Children’s Voices in Family Court: Guidelines for Judges Meeting Children” (2013) 47:3 Family Law Quarterly 381.
  • Birnbaum, Rachel & Nicholas Bala. “Judicial Interviews With Children In Custody And Access Cases: Comparing Experiences In Ontario And Ohio” (2010), 24(2) International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family 300.
  • Birnbaum, Rachel & Michael Saini. “A Scoping Review of Qualitative Studies on the Voice of The Child in Child Custody Disputes” (2013) 20 Childhood 260.
  • Birnbaum, Rachel; Nicholas Bala & John Paul Boyd. "The Canadian Experience with Views of the Child Reports: A Valuable Addition to the Toolbox?” International Journal of Policy, Law and the Family [forthcoming in 2016].
  • Birnbaum, Rachel; Nicholas Bala, & Francine Cyr. “Children’s Experiences with Family Justice Professionals In Ontario and Ohio” (2011) 25 International Journal of Policy, Law and the Family 398.
  • Brubacher, Sonja; Nicholas C. Bala, Kim Roberts & Heather Price. “Investigative Interviewing of Witnesses and Victims in Canada,” in David Walsh et al., eds., International Developments and Practices in Investigative Interviewing and Interrogation, Volume 1: Victims and Witnesses (London: Routledge Press, 2015).
  • Canadian Coalition on the Rights of the Child. Children’s Rights in Canada 2011- Working Document: Right to Education, Research Report.
  • Canada, Immigration and Refugee Board. Guideline 3: Child Refugee Claimants: Procedural and Evidentiary Issues (September 30, 1996), online:
    http://www.irb-cisr.gc.ca/Eng/BoaCom/references/pol/GuiDir/Pages/GuideDir03.aspx.
  • Canada, Immigration and Refugee Board. “Designated Representatives Guide,” online:
    http://www.irb-cisr.gc.ca/Eng/BoaCom/references/LegJur/Pages/GuideDesRep.aspx.
    Day, David C. “The Capable Minor’s Healthcare: Who Decides?” (2007), 86 Can. Bar Rev. 379.
  • Denov, Myriam. “Youth Justice and Children’s Rights: Transformations in Canada’s Youth Justice System,” in R. Brian Howe & Katherine Covell, eds., A Question of Commitment: Children’s Rights in Canada (Waterloo: Wilfred Laurier University Press, 2007) 153.
  • Finlay, Judy; Jill Magazine, and Amanda Hotrum. Consent and Confidentiality in Health Services: Respecting the Right to be Heard (Toronto: Office of the Child and Family Service Advocacy, 2005).
  • Government of the United Kingdom, Policy Paper:Voice of the Child: government response to Dispute Resolution Advisory Group report, online:
    http://www.gov.uk/government/publications/voice-of-the-child-government-response-to-dispute-resolution-advisory-group-report.
  • Green, Ross Gordon & Kearney F. Healy. Tough on Kids: Rethinking Approaches to Youth Justice (Saskatoon: Purich Publishing, 2003).
  • Grover, Sonja. “On the Rights of Refugee Children and Child Asylum Seekers,” in R. Brian Howe & Katherine Covell, eds., A Question of Commitment: Children’s Rights in Canada (Waterloo: Wilfred Laurier University Press, 2007) 343.
  • Howe, R. Brian & Katherine Covell. “Schools and the Participation Rights of Children (1999-2000), 10 Education and Law Journal 107.
    Howe, R. Brian & Katherine Covell. Education in the Best Interests of the Child: A Children's Rights Perspective on Closing the Achievement Gap  (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2013).
  • Kelly, Joan B.  & Mary Kay Kisthardt, “Helping Parents Tell Their Children about Separation and Divorce: Social Science Frameworks and the Lawyer’s Counseling Responsibility” (2009) 22 J. Am. Acad. Mat. L. 1401.
  • Munby, James. “Unheard voices: The involvement of children and vulnerable people in the family justice system,” [2015] Fam Law 895.
  • Office of the Provincial Advocate for Children and Youth, Youth Advisory Committee, online:
    http://www.provincialadvocate.on.ca/main/en/ihsts/youth-advisory-committee.html.
  • Ontario Office of the Children’s Lawyer, Policy on the Role of Child’s Counsel, April 3, 1995, revised January 18, 2001.
  • Ottawa Police Service, Youth Advisory Committee, online:
    http://www.ottawapolice.ca/en/news-and-community/youth-advisory-committee-yac.asp.
  • Paré, Mona. “Inclusion and Participation in Special Education Processes in Ontario, Canada” in  Tali Gal & Benedetta Durmay, eds. International Perspectives and Empirical Findings on Child Participation: From Social Exclusion to Child-Inclusive Policies (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015) 37.
  • Parks, Aisling. Children and International Human Rights Law: The Right of Children to be Heard (London: Routledge, 2013).
    Paul-Carson, Patricia. Intercountry Adoption Legislation in Canada: Does It Protect the Best Interests of the Child? (Ottawa, Adoption Council of Canada, May, 2012) online:
    www.adoption.ca/uploads/File/The-Legal-Context-July-2012(1).doc.
  • Peterson-Badali, Michele & Martin Ruck. "Rights Knowledge, Reasoning, and Attitudes" in Roger J.R. Levesque ed., Encyclopedia of Adolescence (NewYork: Springer, 2012) 2386.
  • Renting, David. “Program helps ‘unaccompanied minors’ navigate Canada’s refugee process,”   Toronto Star, Aug. 17, 2013.
  • Ross, Oakland. “Deported Mexican teen makes daring return to Canada,” Toronto Star, May 05, 2011.
  • Semple, Noel. “The Silent Child: A Quantitative Analysis of Children’s Evidence in Canadian Custody and Access Cases” (2010) 29 Canadian Family Law Quarterly 7.
  • Thompson, D.A.R. “Are there Any Rules of Evidence in Family Law?” (2003) 21 Can. Fam. L.Q. 245 at 289.
  • Williams, R.J. “If Wishes Were Horses Then Beggars Would Ride” (Paper presented at the National Judicial Institute, Family Law Program, 1999).
  • Wilson, Jeffery. The Law’s Treatment of Children and Youth (Toronto: Lexis, 2011).
  • Wouk, Judith; Soojin Yu, Lisa Roach, Jessie Thomson, Anmarie Harris. (2006) “Unaccompanied/Separated Minors and Refugee Protection in Canada: Filling Information Gaps”
    23:2 Refuge: Canadian Journal on Refugees 125-134.
  • United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child, Sixty-first session, 5 October, 2012, CRC/C/CAN/CO/3-4, Concluding Observations: Canada
  • United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Comment no. 12(2009): The right of the child to be heard, UN Doc. CRC/C/GC/12.
Date modified: