Criminal Justice System's Response to Non-Disclosure of HIV

Bibliography

Legislation

  • Communicable Diseases Act, RSNL 1990, c C-26.
  • Health Protection Act, SNS 2004, c 4.
  • Health Protection and Promotion Act, RSO 1990, c H.7, s 39.
  • Public Health Act, RSA 2000, c P-37.
  • Public Health Act, SBC 2008, c 28.
  • Public Health Act, RSPEI 1988, c P-30.1.
  • Public Health Act, SNB 1998, c P-22.4
  • Public Health Act, SQ 2001, c 60.
  • Public Health Act, RSS 1994, c P-37.
  • Reporting of Diseases and Conditions Regulation, Man Reg 37/2009.
  • Reportable Disease Control Regulations, NWT Reg 128-2009.

Jurisprudence

  • Krieger v Law Society of Alberta, 2002 SCC 65.
  • R v Agnatuk-Mercier, [2001] OJ No 4729 (QL).
  • R v Allen, 2012 BCSC 215; 2012 BCCA 377.
  • R v Antonius, 2000 BCSC 429.
  • R v Aziga, [2008] OJ no 4669 (QL); 2011 ONSC 4592.
  • R v Beaudoin, 2016 ONCJ 803.
  • R v Bear, 2011 MBQB 191; 2013 MBCA 96.
  • R v Biron, [2014] QCCQ 8115.
  • R v Bissette, [2017] ONCJ 545.
  • R v Bitterman, 2005 ABPC 165.
  • R v Boone, 2012 ONSC 441; 2016 ONCA 227.
  • R v Boone, 2013 ONSC 79.
  • R v Boone, 2016 ONSC 1626.
  • R v Booth, [2005] ABPC 137.
  • R v Brooks, [2006] AJ No 245 (QL).
  • R v Bruneau, [2010] OJ No 4600 (QL).
  • R v C.B., 2017 ONCJ 545.
  • R v C. (J.T.), [2013] NSPC 105.
  • R v Clarke, 2013 ONSC 3232.
  • R v Courcy, [2017] QCCQ 4348.
  • R v Cuerrier, [1998] 2 SCR 371.
  • R v D.C., 2012 SCC 48.
  • R v DeBlois, [2005] Carswell Ont 1551 (WL Can).
  • R v Debnam, 2002 ABCA 222.
  • R v Dionne, 2012 ABPC 261.
  • R v Dowholis, 2016 ONCA 801.
  • R v Dufresne, 2009 QCCQ 16249; 2010 QCCA 2212.
  • R v Edwards, 2001 NSSC 80.
  • R v F.S., 2004 ONCJ 230.
  • R v Felix, 2010 ONCJ 322; 2010 ONCJ 654; 2013 ONCA 415.
  • R v Flowers, [2014] ORBD No 3101 (QL); [2016] ORBD No 229 (QL); [2016] ORBD No 3096 (QL).
  • R v Gowdy, 2014 ONCJ 592; 2014 ONCJ 696; 2016 ONCA 989.
  • R v Hutchinson, 2014 SCC 19.
  • R v Iamkhong, [2007] OJ No 3252 (QL); 2009 ONCA 478.
  • R v Ifejika, 2006 ONCJ 356; Catholic Children’s Aid Society of Hamilton c I. (J.), [2006] OJ no 2299 (QL).
  • R v Jacko, 2013 QCCQ 931.
  • R v J.M., [2005] OJ No 5649 (QL); 2005 CarswellOnt 8297 (QL).
  • R v JTC, 2013 NSPC 88; 2013 NSPC 105.
  • R v Jackson, 2003 YKTC 32.
  • R v Kaonga, [2008] CarswellMan 684 (WL Can).
  • R v Kaotalok, 2013 NWTSC 36.
  • R v Kidane Gebrejohannes, 2016 ABCA 205.
  • R v Krouglov, 2017 ONCA 197.
  • R v L (J.M.), 2007 BCPC 341.
  • R v L (M), 2006 QCCQ 11242; 2010 QCCA 395.
  • R v Lamirande, [2006] MJ No 223 (QL); 2006 MBCA 71.
  • R v Leahy, 2006 BCPC 179.
  • R v Leone, 2016 FC 980.
  • R v Lesage, 2013 QCCQ 1951.
  • R v Levac, 2009 QCCQ 4533.
  • R v M (RP), [2000] MJ No 500 (QL).
  • R v Mabior, 2012 SCC 47.
  • R v McGregor, 2008 ONCA 831.
  • R v Mekonnen, 2009 ONCJ 643; 2013 ONCA 414.
  • R v Mercier, 2011 QCCQ 198.
  • R v Miron, [2000] MJ no 500 (QL).
  • R v Mumford, [2009] OJ no 1637 (QL); 2010 ONSC 5624.
  • R v Murphy, [2013] CarswellOnt 11952 (WL Can).
  • R v Murray, 2002 BCPC 203.
  • R v Mzite, 2011 BCCA 267.
  • R v N.D., 2006 QCCA 14; 2006 QCCA 15.
  • R v Nduwayo, 2010 BCSC 1277; 2010 BCSC 1467; 2012 BCCA 281.
  • R v Nelson, 2012 BCPC 348.
  • R v Ngeruka, 2015 YKTC 10; 2015 YKTC 22.
  • R v Nyandwi, 2014 ABPC 186.
  • R v Nyoni, 2014 BCSC 1074; 2014 BCCA 106.
  • R v P (J.D.), 2001 BCCA 341.
  • R v Parenteau, 2010 ONSC 1500.
  • R v Pelletier, 2011 SKQB 7; 2013 SKCA 107.
  • R v Pottelberg, 2010 ONSC 5756.
  • R v Ralph, 2014 ONSC 1376; 2014 ONSC 2800; 2014 ONSC 1072.
  • R v Rollo, 2011 BCPC 283.
  • R v S (KA), 2007 NSCA 119.
  • R v Schenkels, 2016 MBQB 44; 2017 MBCA 62.
  • R v Smith, 2004 BCPC 384; 2004 BCCA 657.
  • R v Smith, [2007] SJ No 150 (QL); 2008 SKCA 61.
  • R v Spooner, 2014 ONSC 7420.
  • R v Thery, [2012] CarswellQue 9375 (WL Can).
  • R v Thomas, 2011 ONSC 7136; 2012 ONSC 1201; 2015 ONCA 221.
  • R v Thompson, 2016 NSSC 134; 2016 NSSC 257.
  • R v Thompson, 2007 BCPC 192; 2008 BCCA 350.
  • R v Tippeneskum, 2011 ONCJ 219.
  • R v Trott, 2010 BCSC 766.
  • R v Tshibamba Muntu, 2017 QCCQ 4299.
  • R v U (J), 2011 ONCJ 457.
  • R v WH, 2015 ONSC 6121; 2015 ONSC 3087.
  • R v Washington, [2016] OJ no 3253 (QL).
  • R v Walford, 2016 ONCA 355.
  • R v Walkem, [2007] CarswellOnt 247 (WL Can).
  • R v Ward, 2005 BCPC 630; 2006 BCCA 153.
  • R v Wilcox, 2011 QCCQ 11007; 2014 QCCA 321; 2014 CSC 75.
  • R v Williams, 2000 CarswellNfld 130 (WL Can); [2000] NJ no 166 (QL); 2001 NFCA 52; 2003 CSC 41.
  • R v Williams, [2001] NJ no 169 (QL) (C Sup TNL); 2004 NLCA 24.
  • R v Williams, 2006 ONCJ 484.
  • R v Wright, 2009 BCCA 514.
  • Re Mitchell, 2016 CarswellOnt 10925 (QL).

Secondary Material: Articles

  • Adam, Barry et al, “Effects of the Criminalization of HIV Transmission in Cuerrier on Men Reporting Unprotected Sex with Men” (2008) 23:1-2 Canadian Journal of Law and Society 143.
    • “HIV positive people’s perspectives on Canadian criminal law and non-disclosure” (2016) 21:1 Canadian Journal of Law and Society 1.
    • “Impacts of criminalization on the everyday lives of people living with HIV in Canada” (2014) 11 Sexuality Research and Social Policy 39.
  • Ahmed, Aziza et al., “Criminalising consensual sexual behaviour in the context of HIV: Consequences, evidence, and leadership” (2011) 6:3 Global Public Health 357.
  • Arseniou, Stylianos, Aikaterini Arvaniti & Maria Samakouri. “HIV infection and depression” (2013) 68:2 Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 96;
  • Azad, Y. “Developing guidance for HIV prosecutions: an example of harm reduction?” (2008) 13:1 HIV AIDS Policy L Rev 13.
  • Becker et al, Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada Position Statement, “The Use of Early Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-infected Persons” (2015).
  • Berger, Philip B. “Prosecuting for knowingly transmitting HIV is warranted” (2009) 180:13 CMAJ 1368.
  • Bennett, David S. et al., “Shame among people living with HIV: a literature review” (2015) 28:1 AIDS Care 87.
  • Bravo, P. et al., “Tough decisions faced by people living with HIV: a literature review of psychosocial problems” (2010) 12:2 AIDS Rev 76.
  • Brenner, Bluma G et al, “High rates of forward transmission events after acute/early HIV-1 infection” (2007) 195:7 J Infect Dis 951.
  • Brown, W, J Hanefeld & J Welsh. “Criminalising HIV transmission: Punishment without protection” (2009) 17: 34 Reproductive Health Matters 119.
  • Buchanan, Kim Shayo. “When is HIV a Crime? Sexuality, Gender and Consent” (2014) 99 Minnesota Law Review 14.
  • Burris, Scott, Edwin Cameron & Michaela Clayton. The Criminalization of HIV: Time for an Unambiguous Rejection of the Use of Criminal Law to Regulate the Sexual Behavior of those with and at Risk of HIV (2008).
  • Burris, Scott et al., “Do criminal laws influence HIV risk behavior?” (2007) 39 Arizona State Law Journal 467.
  • Canadian AIDS Society.
    • “HIV Transmission: Factors that Affect Biological Risk” (11 February 2013).
    • “HIV transmission: Guidelines for Assessing Risk” (2004) 5th ed.
  • Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network.
    • “Addressing HIV Risk Behaviors: A role for Public Health Legislation Policy” (2013).
    • “Criminal Law & HIV Non-Disclosure in Canada” (2014).
    • “HIV non-disclosure and the criminal law: An analysis of two recent decisions of the Supreme Court of Canada R. v. Mabior, 2012 SCC 47 R. v. D.C., 2012 SCC 48” (2012).
    • “Responding to the criminalization of HIV transmission or exposure” (2015).
  • Cheung, CC et al, “Reductions in all-cause and cause-specific mortality among HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy in British Columbia, Canada: 2001–2012” (2016) 17 HIV Medicine 694.
  • Cowan, Sharon. “Offenses of Sex or Violence? Consent, Fraud, and HIV Transmission” (2014) 17:1 New Criminal Law Review 135.
  • Craig, Elaine. “Personal Stare Decisis, HIV Non-disclosure, and the decision in Mabior” (2015) 53:1 Alberta Law Review 208.
  • Daar, Eric & Katya Corado. “Condomless Sex with Virologically Suppressed HIV-Infected Individuals: How Safe is it?” (2016) 316:2 JAMA 149.
  • Dej, Erin & Jennifer M. Kilty. “Criminalization Creep": A Brief Discussion of the Criminalization of HIV/AIDS Nondisclosure in Canada” (2012) 27:1 Canadian Journal of Law and Society 55.
  • Drummond, Sarah L. “Criminalizing HIV Transmission and Exposure in Canada: A Public Health Evaluation” (2011) 19:2 Health Law Review 28.
  • Flaherty, John. “Clarifying the Duty to Warn in HIV Transference Cases” (2008) 54 Crim. L.Q. 61.
  • French, Martin. “Counselling anomie: clashing governmentalities of HIV criminalisation and prevention”. (2014) 25:4 Critical Public Health 373.
  • Galletly, Carol L. & Steven D. Pinkerton.
    • “Conflicting messages: How criminal HIV disclosure laws undermine public health efforts to control the spread of HIV” (2006) 10:5 AIDS and Behavior 451;
    • “Preventing HIV Transmission via HIV Exposure Laws: Applying Logic and Mathematical Modeling to Compare Statutory Approaches to Penalizing Undisclosed Exposure to HIV” (2008) 36:3 J Law Med Ethics 577.
  • Grant, Isabel.
    • “Rethinking Risk: The Relevance of Condoms and Viral Load in HIV Nondisclosure Prosecutions” (2009) 54 McGill LJ 389.
    • “The Boundaries of the Criminal Law: The Criminalization of the Non-Disclosure of HIV” (2008) 31 Dal LJ 123.
    • “The Over-Criminalization of Persons with HIV" online: (2013) 63:3 UTLJ 475.
  • Grant, Isabel, Martha Shaffer & Alison Symington. “Focus: R v Mabior and R v DC” (2013) 63 UTLJ 462.
  • Gonzalez, Jeffrey S et al., “Depression and HIV/AIDS Treatment Non-adherence: A Review and Meta-analysis” (2013) 58:2 J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 10.
  • Harsono, Dini et al., “Criminalization of HIV Exposure: A Review of Empirical Studies in the United States” (2017) 21:1 AIDS and Behaviour 27.
  • Hastings, Colin, Cécile Kazatchkine & Eric Mykhalovskiy, Information Sheet, HIV Criminalization in Canada: Key Trends and Patterns (17 March 2017), Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network.
  • Hughes, David. “Condom Use, Viral Load and the Type of Sexual Activity as Defences to the Sexual Transmission of HIV” (2013) 77:2 The Journal of Criminal Law 136.
  • Jain, Sachin & Kenneth H Mayer. “Practical guidance for nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV infection: an editorial review” (2014) 28:11 AIDS 1545.
  • Jurgens, R et al., “Ten reasons to oppose the criminalization of HIV exposure or transmission” (2009) 17:34 Reproductive Health Matters 163.
  • Kaplan, Margo. “Rethinking HIV-Exposure Crimes” (2012) 87:4 Indiana Law Journal 1517.
  • Katz, Ingrid T et al., “Impact of HIV-related stigma on treatment adherence: systematic review and meta-synthesis” (2013) 16:2 Journal of the International AIDS Society 1.
  • Kazatchkine, Cécile. "HIV Non-Disclosure and the Criminal Law: An Analysis of two Recent Decisions of the Supreme Court of Canada" (2013) 60 Crim L Q 30.
  • Kazatchkine, Cécile & Sandra Ka Hon Chu. “We need to address the unique and complex issues of  Indigenous people living with HIV”, (10 April 2016) CATIE (Blog).
  • Larcher, Akim Adé & Alison Symington. Criminals and Victims? The Impact of the Criminalization of HIV Non-Disclosure on African, Caribbean and Black Communities in Ontario (November 2010), online: Toronto: African and Caribbean Council on HIV/AIDS in Ontario.
  • Lee, Sun Goo. “Criminal Law and HIV Testing: Empirical Analysis of How At-Risk Individuals Respond to the Law” (2015) 14:1 Yale Journal of Health Policy, law and Ethics 194.
  • Loutfy, Mona et al,
    • “Canadian consensus statement on HIV and its transmission in the context of criminal law” (2014) 25:3 Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 135.
    • “Systematic Review of HIV Transmission between Heterosexual Serodiscordant Couples where the HIV-Positive Partner Is Fully Suppressed on Antiretroviral Therapy” (2013) 8:12 PLOS ONE 1.
  • Lowther, Keira et al., “Experience of persistent psychological symptoms and perceived stigma among people with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART): A systematic review” (2014) 51:8 International Journal of Nursing Studies 1171.
  • MacKinnon, Emily & Constance Crompton. “The Gender of Lying: Feminist Perspectives on the Non-Disclosure of HIV Status” (2012) 45:2 UBC L Rev 407.
  • McClelland, Alexander. Criminal Charges & Prosecutions Related to HIV Non-Disclosure, Transmission & Exposure: Impacts on The Lives of People Living with HIV. Doctorate Thesis, Concordia University,  (2017) [unpublished and dissertation under development]. 
  • McIntosch, Roger C & Monica Rosselli. “Stress and Coping in Women Living with HIV: A Meta-Analytic Review” (2012) 16:8 AIDS and Behaviour 2144.
  • Miller, James. “African immigrant damnation syndrome: The case of Charles Ssenyonga” (2005) 2:31 Sexuality Research & Social Policy 31.
  • Eric Mykhalovskiy.
    • ‘‘The problem of ‘significant risk’: Exploring the public health impact of criminalizing HIV non-disclosure’’ (2011) 73:5 Social Science & Medicine 668. 
    • “The public health implications of HIV criminalization: past, current, and future research directions”, (2015) 25:4 Critical Public Health 373.
  • Mykhalovskiy, Eric & Glenn Betteridge. “Who? What? Where? When? And with What Consequences? An Analysis of Criminal Cases of HIV Non-disclosure in Canada” (2012) 27:1 Canadian Journal of Law and Society 31.
  • Mykhalovskiy, Eric et al., “‘Callous, Cold and Deliberately Duplicitous’: Racialization, Immigration and the Representation of HIV Criminalization in Canadian Mainstream Newspapers” (2016).
  • Mykhalovskiy, Eric, Glenn Betteridge & David McLay. “HIV Non-Disclosure and the Criminal Law: Establishing Policy Options for Ontario”, (2010) at 52 CATIE.
  • Nanni, Maria Giulia et al., “Depression in HIV Infected Patients: a Review” (2015) 17 Complex Medical-Psychiatric Issues 530.
  • O’Byrne, Patrick. “The potential effects of a police announcement about an HIV nondisclosure: a case analysis” (2011) 12:1 Policy, Politics and Nursing Practice 53.
  • O’Byrne, Patrick, Alyssa Bryan & Marie Roy. “HIV criminal prosecutions and public health: an examination of the empirical research” (2013) 39:2 Medical Humanities 1.
  • Patrick O’Byrne et al., “Nondisclosure prosecutions and population health outcomes: examining HIV testing, HIV diagnoses, and the attitudes of men who have sex with men following nondisclosure prosecution media releases in Ottawa, Canada” (2013) 13 BMC Public Health 94.
  • Patel, Pragna et al., “Estimating per-act HIV transmission risk: A systematic review”. (2014) AIDS 28:10 1509 at 1509.
  • Persson, A. “I don’t blame that guy that gave it to me: contested discourses of victimisation and culpability in the narratives of heterosexual women infected with HIV” (2014) 26:2 AIDS Care 233.
  • Persson A & C Newman. “Making monsters: heterosexuality, crime and race in recent Western media coverage of HIV” (2008) 30:4 Sociology of Health & Illness 632.
  • Rabkin, Judith G. “HIV and depression: 2008 review and update” (2008) 5:4 Behavioral Aspects of HIV Management 163.
  • Rawluk, Kevin. “HIV and Shared Responsibility: A Critical Evaluation of Mabior and DC” (2013) 22 Dalhousie Journal of Legal Studies 21.
  • Robbins, G et al., “Predicting virologic failure in an HIV clinic” (2010) 1:50 Clin Infect Dis 2010 779.
  • Rodger, J. Alison et al, “Sexual Activity without Condoms and Risk of HIV Transmission in Serodifferent Couples When the HIV-Positive Partner Is Using Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy” (2016) 316:2 JAMA 171.
  • Sawyer, Alexandra, Susan Ayers & Andy P Field. “Posttraumatic growth and adjustment among individuals with cancer or HIV/AIDS: A meta-analysis (2010) 30:4 Clinical Psychology Review 436.
  • Skarbinski, Jacek et al, “Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission at Each Step of the Care Continuum in the United States” online: (2015) 175:4 JAMA Intern Med 588.
  • Stewart, Hamish. “When Does Fraud Vitiate Consent? A Comment on R v Williams” (2005) 49 Criminal Law Quarterly 144.
  • Symington, Alison.
    • “Injustice Amplified by HIV Non-Disclosure Ruling” (2013) 63 UTLJ 485.
    • “What Does Consent Really Mean? Rethinking HIV Non-Disclosure and Sexual Assault Law”, (25 February 2016), Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network.
  • Tedaldi, Ellen M., Nancy L Minniti & Tracy Fischer. “HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders: The Relationship of HIV Infection with Physical and Social Comorbidities” (2015) 2015 BioMed Research International.
  • Vandervort, Lucinda. “HIV, Fraud, Non-Disclosure, Consent and a Stark Choice: Mabior or Sexual Autonomy?” (2013) 60:2 Criminal Law Quarterly 301.
  • Wainberg, M.A. “HIV transmission should be decriminalized: HIV prevention programs depend on it”. (2008) 5 Retrovirology 108.
  • Waldman, Ari Ezra. “Exceptions: The Criminal Law's Illogical Approach to HIV-Related Aggravated Assaults” (2010) 18:3 Virginia Journal of Social Policy and the Law 550.
  • Wilson, Ciann. “The Impact of the Criminalization of HIV Non-Disclosure on the Health and Human Rights of ‘Black’ Communities” (2015) 1 Health Tomorrow 109.
  • Wood, LF et al., “The Oral Mucosa Immune Environment and Oral Transmission of HIV/SIV”. (2013) 254:1 Immunological reviews 34.

Government and Public Health Documents

  • Alberta.
    • Alberta Health Services, The Blue Book: Standards for the Management and Evaluation of STI Clinic Clients, (July 2014).                
    • Alberta Health and Wellness, Public Health Notifiable Disease Management Guidelines, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), (January 2011).
    • Report by Alberta’s Chief Medical Officer of Health, HIV positive Individuals Who are Unwilling or Unable to Prevent the Spread of HIV in Alberta, (February 2015).
  • British Columbia.
    • BC Centre for Disease Control, Communicable Disease Control Manual, Chapter 5 – Sexually Transmitted Infections, HIV Pre and Post Test Guidelines, (September 2011).
    • BC Centre for Disease Control, “Condom effectiveness - Fact sheet for public health personal” (2013).
    • BC Centre for Disease Control, “Frequently Asked Questions: Topic: Guidelines for Medical Health Officers: Approach to persons with HIV/AIDS who may pose a risk of harm to others”, (BC: BC BC Centre for Disease Control, “Guidelines for Medical Health Officers: Approach to people with HIV/AIDS who may pose a risk of harm to others”, (BC: BC Centre for Disease Control, 2010). Centre for Disease Control, January 24, 2011).
    • British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, “HIV Monitoring Quarterly Report for British Columbia” (2015) Third Quarter.
    • British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, “Therapeutic Guidelines for Antiretroviral (ARV) Treatment of Adult HIV Infection Canada” (September 2015).
  • Canada.
    • Department of Justice Canada, “Restorative Justice Program Guidelines”, (Ottawa: Department of Justice, 2003).
    • Department of Justice Canada, “Values and Principles of Restorative Justice in Criminal Matters”, (Ottawa: Department of Justice, 2003).
    • Government of Canada, The Criminal Law in Canadian Society, (Ottawa: 1982).
    • Public Health Agency of Canada, Canadian Guidelines on Sexually Transmitted Infections, (2006).
    • Public Health Agency of Canada, “HIV and AIDS in Canada: Surveillance Report to December 31, 2014” (Ottawa: PHAC, 2014).
    • Public Health Agency of Canada, “HIV in Canada: Surveillance summary tables, 2014-2015” (Ottawa: PHAC, 2014-15).
    • Public Health Agency of Canada, HIV/AIDS Epi Updates, Chapter 3, HIV Testing and Surveillance Systems in Canada, (July 2010).
    • Public Health Agency of Canada, “HIV Transmission Risk: A Summary of Evidence”, (Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada, 2013).
    • Public Health Agency of Canada, “Persons who fail to disclose their HIV/AIDS status: Conclusions reached by an Expert Working Group” (2005) 31(5) Canada Communicable Disease Report.
    • Public Health Agency of Canada, “Population-Specific HIV/AIDS Status Report: People Living with HIV/AIDS” (Ottawa: PHAC, 2013).
    • Public Health Agency of Canada, “Summary: Estimates of HIV incidence, prevalence and proportion undiagnosed in Canada, 2014” (Ottawa: PHAC, 2014).
    • Public Health Agency of Canada, “Summary: Measuring Canada’s Progress on the 90-90-90 HIV Targets”, by Surveillance and Epidemiology Division Professional Guidelines and Public Health Practice Division Centre for Communicable Diseases and Infection Control (Ottawa: PHAC, 2017).
    • Statistics Canada, Table 102-0521 Deaths, by cause, Chapter I: Certain infectious and parasitic diseases (A00 to B99), age group and sex, Canada, CANSIM.
  • Manitoba Communicable Disease Control Branch, Communicable Disease Management Protocol, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), (February 2010).
  • Manitoba’s Winnipeg Regional Health Authority, Managing HIV Non-Disclosure in Refusing (Unable or Unwilling) Clients, (2014).
    • Position Statement on Harm Reduction, (December 2016).
  • National Collaborating Centre for Infectious Diseases. “Review of Provincial and Territorial Partner Notification Guidelines and Legislation for Sexually Transmitted and Blood Borne Infections”, (Winnipeg: National Collaborating Centre for Infectious Diseases, 2013).
  • Ontario Advisory Committee on HIV and AIDS. “Reducing HIV Transmission by People With HIV Who Are Unwilling or Unable to Take Appropriate Precautions: An Update” (May 2002).
  • Ontario.
    • Ontario HIV Epidemiologic Monitoring Unit, Number of HIV tests and positivity rate by year of test, Ontario, 1996 to 2013.
    • Guidelines for HIV Counselling and Testing, (March 2008).
    • Ontario Working Group on Criminal Law and HIV Exposure. “Ontario Minister’s Round Table: Exploring avenues to address problematic prosecutions against people living with HIV in Ontario” (5 December 2016).
    • Consultation on Prosecutorial Guidelines for Ontario Cases Involving Non-disclosure of Sexually Transmitted Infections: Community Report and Recommendations to the Attorney General of Ontario, June 2011.
    • News Release, “Latest News” (December 2016).
  • Provincial Infectious Disease Advisory Committee, Sexually Transmitted Infections Case Management and Contact Tracing Best Practice Recommendations, (April 2009).
  • Québec.
    • Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec. “Expert Consensus: Viral Load and the Risk of HIV Transmission”, (Québec: Institut aébec, 2014).
    • Guide québécois de dépistage des infections transmissibles sexuellement et par le sang, (April 2016).
  • Saskatchewan.
    • Ministry of Health Population Health Branch. HIV Prevention and Control Program Report for 2015 (Saskatchewan: Ministry of Health, 2015).
    • eHealth Saskatchewan, Communicable Disease Control Manual, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV), (October 2015).
  • Winnipeg. Winnipeg Regional Health Authority, “Position Statement on Harm Reduction” (Winnipeg: WRHA, December 2016).

Foreign Sources

  • UK.
    • England and Wales, Crown Prosecution Service, The Policy for prosecuting cases involving the intentional or reckless sexual transmission of infection, (July 2011).
    • Crown Prosecution Service, Intentional or Reckless Sexual Transmission of Infection.
  • UK. Scotland, Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service, Prosecution policy on the sexual transmission of infection, (May 2012).

International Materials

  • Committee on the Elimination of Discretion against Women. Concluding observations on the combined eighth and ninth periodic reports of Canada, CEDAW/C/CAN/CO/8-9, 2016.
  • Elliot, Richard. Criminal Law Public Health and HIV Transmission: A Policy Options Paper (2002) UNAIDS.
  • Global Commission on HIV and the Law, Risks, Rights & Health, (2012).
  • International Advisory Panel on HIV Care Continuum Optimization. IAPAC Guideline for Optimizing the HIV Care Continuum for Adults and Adolescents
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union. Effective Laws to End HIV and AIDS: Next Steps for Parliaments, (2013).
  • Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) and UNAIDS, International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights, (2006).
  • UNAIDS.
    • Criminalisation of HIV Non-Disclosure, Exposure and Transmission: Background and Current Landscape, Background paper, February 2012.
    • Ending overly broad criminalization of HIV non-disclosure, exposure and transmission: Critical scientific, medical and legal considerations, JC2351E, May 2013.
  • UNAIDS & UNDP.
    • Summary of Main Issues and Conclusions: International Consultations on the Criminalization of HIV Tranmisssion, (31 October – 2 November 2007).
    • The Gap Report (16 July 2014).
    • 90-90-90 An ambitious treatment target to help end the AIDS epidemic, JC2684, October 2014.
    • United Nations, Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), Concluding Observations on the Combined Eighth and Ninth Periodic Reports of Canada (2016).
    • World Health Organization. Draft global health sector strategies HIV, 2016-2021, WHO Doc A69/31 of 22 April 2016.
    • Draft global health sector strategies viral hepatitis, 2016-2021, WHO Doc A69/32 of 22 April 2016.
    • Draft global health sector strategies sexually transmitted infections, 2016-2021, WHO Doc A69/33 of 16 May 2016.

Other Materials

  • Aids Action Now. Website. “Open Letter to Jane Philpott Minister of Health from AIDS ACTION NOW!” (11 October 2016).
    • Website, “Banner drop! Stop criminalizing people living with HIV!” (3 July 2016).
  • Aids Community Care Montreal.
    • Website. “Home Page” (August 2017).
    • Trailer, “HIV is not a crime: Training Academy Video Documentary” (ACCM, 2017).
    • Arkell, C. Fact Sheet. “HIV treatment and an undetectable viral load to prevent HIV transmission” (CATIE, 2017).
    • Fact Sheet, “Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)” (CATIE, 2017).
    • Association of Iroquois & Allied Indians. Website. “Policy Areas” (August 2017).
  • ATHENA. Online Release, “10 Reasons Why Criminalization of HIV Transmission Harms Women”.
  • Bernard, EJ. “The evolution of global criminalisation norms: the role of the United States, HIV and the Criminal Law”, (2010) NAM.
  • British Columbia. BC Centre for Disease Control. Website. “Programs: Chee Mamuk (Aboriginal Health)” (August 2017).
  • Canadian Aboriginal AIDS Network. “Aboriginal Strategy on HIV/AIDS in Canada II: for First Nations, Inuit and Metis Peoples from 2009 to 2014” (March 2009).
  • Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network.
    • “Consent: HIV Non-disclosure and sexual assault law” Online Documentary (Goldelox Production, 2016).
    • Fact Sheet, “Sex Offender Registries: Facts Sheet” (April 2017).
    • Information Sheet, “HIV Criminalization in Canada: Current Context & Advocacy” (16 December 2016).
    • “Positive Women: Exposing Injustice: What if you knew you could go to prison for something you couldn’t change?” Online Documentary (Goldelox Production, 2012).
    • News Release, “New Canadian Coalition to Reform HIV Criminalization Launched” (2 November 2016).
    • News Release, “UN Experts Make Historic Recommendations to Canada: End unjust HIV criminalization, repeal law restricting supervised consumption services, and implement needle and syringe programmes in prison” (18 November 2016).
    • Information Sheet, “Women and the Criminalization of HIV Non-Disclosure” (16 February 2017).
  • Canadian Positive People Network. Website. “Resources” (August 2017).
  • Carrier Sekani Family Services. Website. “Services” (August 2017).
  • CATIE.
    • Prevention Statement, “CATIE Statement on the use of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as a highly effective strategy to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV” (March 2017).
    • Prevention Statement, “CATIE STATEMENT on the use of antiretroviral treatment (ART) to maintain an undetectable viral load as a highly effective strategy to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV” (March 2017).
    • “HIV in Canada: A primer for service providers” (April 2015).
  • Coalition des Organismes Communautaires Québécois de Lutte Contre le SIDA.
    • “Criminalisation de l'exposition au VIH” VIH Info droits”.
    • “Position de la COCQ-SIIDA sur la criminalisation de l’exposition au VIH” (April, 2013).  
    • “VIH/sida et Maladies à déclaration obligatoire (MADO)” VIH Info droits.
  • Elliott, Richard. “How everyone living with HIV in Canada became a potential criminal” (8 August 2017), XtraSpark.
  • File Hills Qu’Appelle Tribal Council. Website. “Home”. (August 2017).
  • Hastings, Colin, Cécile Kazatchkine & Eric Mykhalovskiy. Info Sheet, “HIV Criminalization in Canada: Key Trends and Patterns” Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network (17 March 2017).
  • HIV & AIDS Legal Clinic Ontario & Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network.
    • “The criminalization of HIV non- disclosure: Recommendations for police”, Submissions to the Ontario Association of Chiefs of Police Diversity Committee (February 2013).
    • “Exploring Avenues to Address Problematic Prosecutions against People Living with HIV in Canada” (March 2017).
  • HIV & AIDS Legal Clinic Ontario. “HIV and Criminal Law” (2014).
  • International Community of Women Living with HIV (ICW). Position Paper, “Criminalization of Women
  • Living with HIV: Non-Disclosure, Exposure, And Transmission” (May 2015).
    • Website. “10 Reasons Why Criminalization of HIV Exposure or Transmission Harms Women” (1 December 2009).
  • Ka Ni Kanichihk Inc. Website. “Programs” (August 2017).
  • Mill, Judy E et al, “Aborginal Women Living with HIV” (2008) 5:2 Pimatisiwin: A Journal of Aboriginal and
  • Indigenous Community Health 151.
    • “Challenging Lifestyles: Aboriginal Men and Women Living with HIV”, online: (2008) 5:2
  • Pimatisiwin: A Journal of Aboriginal and Indigenous Community Health 151.
  • Native Women’s Shelter of Montreal. Website. “Projects & Programs” (August 2017).
  • Nine Circle Community Health Centre. Website. “Programmes and Services” (August 2017).
  • Ontario Aboriginal HIV/AIDS Strategy. “A Strategic Plan for the Years 2010 -2015” (July 2010).
  • PARN. Website. “About PARN” (August 2017).
  • PASAN. Website. “Home Page” (August 2017).
  • Pauktuutit Inuit Women of Canada. “Inuit Five-Year Strategic Plan on Sexual Health 2010-2015” (2009).
  • Positive Living North. Website. “Resources” (August 2017).
  • Positive Living Society of British Columbia.
    • Website. “Home” (August 2017).
    • Position Paper, “The Need for New Charge Assessment Guideline: HIV Non-Disclosure in British Columbia” (11 June 2014).
    • “Notice: HIV Disclosure and Criminalization” (2012).
  • Prevention Access Campaign, Consensus Statement, “Risk of Sexual Transmission of HIV from a person
  • living with HIV Who has an undetectable viral load (6 July 2017).
  • Red Rose HIV/AIDS Network. Website. “Publications” (August 2017).
  • Shining Mountains Living Community Services. Website. “Programs & Funders” (August 2017).
  • Tk’emlúps te Secwe̓pemc. Website. “Medical” (August 2017).
  • Ts'ewulhtun Health Centre. Website. “Home” (August 2017).
  • Two-Spirited People of the First Nations. Website. (August 2017).
  • Two-Spirited People of Manitoba Inc. Website. “Home” (August 2017).
  • Vancouver Native Health Society. Website. “Research” (August 2017).
  • Wabano Centre for Aboriginal Health. Website. “Programs” (August 2017).
  • Women’s Health in Women’s Hands. Website. “Research: Chronic Illnesses/Diseases: HIV/AIDS” (August 2017).
Date modified: