The Economic Impact of Firearm-related Crime in Canada, 2008
Appendix C Third-Party CostsFootnote 39
C.1 Funeral Service Expenses
|Number of victims killed in firearm-related crime||204Table note a|
|Average cost of funeral services in Canada 2007||$7,500Table note b|
|Average cost of funeral services in Canada 2008 (inflation adjustment)||$7,665|
|Total Funeral Service Expenses ($7,665*204)||$1,563,660|
|Total Funeral and Burial Expenses||$1,563,660|
- Table note a
Source: Statistics Canada, CCJS. Uniform Crime Report Survey 2 (UCR2).
- Table note b
According to the Canadian Press, the average funeral in Canada costs about $7,500 in 2007. Ontario Board of Funeral Services reported that the average value purchased was about $7,366 in 2008.
C.2 Loss of Affection/Enjoyment to Family Members
|Number of victims killed in firearm-related crime||204Table note c|
|Percentage of people living alone or with unrelated persons||30.4%Table note d|
|Percentage of people living in family households||69.6%Table note e|
|Number of victims living alone or with unrelated persons (204*30.4%)||62Table note e|
|Number of victims living in family households (204-62)||142Table note e|
|Number of parents of victims (204*2)||408|
|Number of spouse/partners of victims (142*1)||142|
|Number of children of victims (142*1)||142Table note f|
|Average court award to parents for grief and loss of companionship||75,000Table note g|
|Average court award to spouses/partners for grief and loss of companionship||75,000Table note g|
|Average court award to children for grief and loss of companionship||45,000Table note g|
|Court awards to parents (408*$75,000)||$30,600,000|
|Court awards to spouses/partners (142*$75,000)||$10,650,000|
|Court awards to Children (142*$45,000)||$6,390,000|
|Total Loss of Affection/Enjoyment to Family Members ($30,600,000+$10,650,000+$6,390,000)||$47,640,000|
|Total Loss of Affection/Enjoyment to Family Members||$47,640,000|
- Table note c
Source: Statistics Canada, CCJS, Uniform Crime Report Survey 2 (UCR2).
- Table note d
Source: Statistics Canada, Family Portrait: Continuity and Change in Canadian Families and Households in 2006, 2007.
- Table note e
It is assumed that the household composition for victims is the same as the distribution for the general Canadian population.
- Table note f
The average number of children per family has also dropped to 1.1 in 2006. Source: Statistics Canada, Family Portrait: Continuity and Change in Canadian Families and Households in 2006, 2007. It is assumed that the average number of children per family household in 2008 was 1.
- Table note g
Alberta's Fatal Accidents Act requires the court to award damages for grief and the loss of care, guidance and companionship in the amount of $75,000 to the spouse or adult partner of the deceased person; $75,000 to the parents of the deceased person; and $45,000 to each minor or unmarried/un-partnered child of the deceased person. Source: Alberta Fatal Accidents Act, R.S.A. 2000, C. F-8, S. 8.
C.3 Costs to Other Persons Harmed During the Incidents
C.3.1 Health Care Costs
|Number of other people harmed or threatened (Main File)||852Table note h|
|Number of other people harmed or threatened (Incident File)||75,156Table note h|
|Total number of other people harmed or threatened (852+75,156)||76,008|
|Percentage of people who had medical attention from a physician||0.36%Table note i|
|Number of other persons having medical attention from a physician (76,008*0.36%)||274|
|Average cost of medical attention from a physician||$55.64Table note j|
|Cost of medical attention from a physician (274*$55.64)||$15,245|
|Percentage of people who had medical attention at a hospital||1.78%Table note i|
|Number of victims having medical attention at a hospital (76,008*1.78%)||1,353|
|Cost of an ED visit||$400.41Table note k|
|Cost of medical attention at a hospital (1,353*$400.41)||$541,755Table note l|
|Health care costs to other people ($15,245+$541,755)||$557,000|
- Table note h
Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. Main File: PSX_Q190, EXVIOL, XAI_Q180, XAI_Q185, CRVIOL, SAI_Q180, SAI_Q185; Incident File: CIR_Q105_C01, CIR_Q335.
- Table note i
Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. Main File: PSX_Q190, EXVIOL, XAI_Q130, XAI_Q140, PSP_Q190, CRVIOL, SAI_Q130, SAI_Q140; Incident File: CIR_Q105_C01, CIR_Q170 and CIR_Q180. It is assumed that other individuals who were harmed or threatened during the incidents had the same possibility as the victims of seeking medical attention from a doctor or at hospital.
- Table note j
See section B.1.1, note b.
- Table note k
See section B.1.2, note d.
- Table note l
There is a lack of data regarding hospitalization of other persons harmed and therefore, to provide a conservative estimate, we do not consider this case.
C.3.2 Productivity Losses
|Number of other people off from daily activities (Main File)||413Table note m|
|Number of other people off from daily activities (Incident File)||50,438Table note m|
|Total Number of other people off from daily activities (413+50,438)||50,851|
|Number of days for other people off from daily activity (50,851*2)||101,702Table note n|
|Average hourly wage rate for household workers||$13.20Table note o|
|Productivity losses to other people (101,702*$13.20)||$1,342,466|
- Table note m
Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. Main File: PSX_Q190, EXVIOL, XAI_Q190, XAI_Q195, PSP_Q190, CRVIOL, SAI_Q190, SAI_Q195; Incident File: CIR_Q105_C01, CIR_Q336. Note that this figure only refers to people who were harmed or threatened and who were 15 years and over.
- Table note n
It is assumed that each person took 2 days off from daily activities.
- Table note o
We use the value of household work as a conservative estimate. See section B.2.2, note ad.
|Health Care costs||$557,000|
|Total Costs to Other People Harmed or Threatened||$1,899,466|
C.4 Social Service Operating Costs
C.4.1 Operating Costs of Shelters (Transition Home)
|Number of shelters 2003/04||473Table note p|
|Number of beds 2003/04||8,879Table note p|
|Average number of beds per shelter 2003/04 (8,879/473)||18.77|
|Number of shelters 2005/06||553Table note q|
|Estimate Number of beds 2005/06 (18.77*553)||10,380|
|Annual operating costs of shelters 2005/06||$317,000,000Table note q|
|Daily cost of shelter per bed 2005/2006 [$317,000,000/(10,380*365.25)]||$83.61|
|Daily cost of shelter per bed 2008 (inflation adjusted)||$89.07|
|Number of victims going to shelters (all female victims) 2008||44Table note r|
|Number of dependent children going to shelters (44*48%)||21Table note s|
|Average length of stay (days)||60Table note t|
|Operating costs of shelters [(44+21)*60*$89.07]||$347,373|
- Table note p
Source: Statistics Canada, Canada's Shelters for Abused Women 2003/04.
- Table note q
Source: Statistics Canada, Canada's Shelters for Abused Women, 2005/06. Costs include wages and salaries, and expenditures directly with clients, such as food, supplies, protection, protection and counselling services
- Table note r
Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. Main file: PSX_Q190, XCS_Q145, PSP_Q190, SCS_Q145.
- Table note s
About half (48%) of the women were admitted to shelters with their children. Source: Statistics Canada, Residents of Canada's Shelters for Abused Women 2008. According to the Interval House of Ottawa (Ottawa ON), normally each child occupies a separate bed. Furthermore, it is assumed that each female victim brought only one child with her.
- Table note t
Average length of stay is calculated from the information presented in the following table. Source: Statistics Canada, Canada's Shelters for Abused Women, 2005/06.
|Type of Shelters||Percentage||Length of stay(Days)|
|Second stage housing||18%||225|
|Women's emergency shelter||13%||11|
|Safe home network||3%||2|
|Family resource centre||2%||1|
C.4.2 Operating Costs of Crisis Lines
|Number of victims contacting crisis lines (Main File)||1,578Table note u|
|Number of victims contacting crisis lines (Incident File)||11,078Table note u|
|Total number of victims contacting crisis lines (1,578+11,078)||12,656|
|Average hourly operating cost of crisis lines||$20Table note v|
|Average call length in hours per call||0.28Table note w|
|Average frequency for a victim to call in||5Table note x|
|Operating costs of crisis lines (12,656*$20*0.28*5)||$354,368|
- Table note u
Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. Main file, PSX_Q190, XCS_Q115, PSP_Q190, SCS_Q115; Incident File, CIR_Q105_C01, TTA_Q210.
- Table note v
Annual salary for crisis line coordinators ranges from $37,011 to $46,274 (2011), equivalent to an hourly wage rate range from $19 to $24. Source: http://www.charityvillage.com/. Various other job-posting websites also suggested that the hourly wage rate is from $13 to $19. We use $20 for the estimation.
- Table note w
Source: Centre of Excellence for Children & Adolescents with Special Needs, Usage of the Nunavut Kamatsiaqtut Help Line (NKHL): An Analysis of 11 Years' of Database, 2005. The report is available from http://www.coespecialneeds.ca/PDF/nkhlfinalreport.pdf.
- Table note x
As all the phone calls made to crisis lines are anonymous, no official information is available with regard to the number of times that one person called in. However, according to crisis line workers, people do make follow-up calls. Following this, it is assumed that on average each victim made 5 calls to the crisis lines.
C.4.3 Operating Costs of Victim Services
|Average operating cost per victim service agency 2007/08||$263,181Table note y|
|Average operating cost per victim service agency 2008 (Inflation adjustment)||$270,073|
|Total number of victim service agencies||879Table note z|
|Total annual operating costs for victim services 2008 ($270,073*879)||$237,394,167|
|Average number of victims served per agency||592Table note aa|
|Total number of victims seeking assistance (592*879)||520,368|
|Average operating cost per victim ($237,394,167/520,368)||$456.20|
|Number of victims using victim services||8,156Table note ab|
|Operating costs of victim services ($456.20*8,156)||$3,720,767|
- Table note y
Source: Statistics Canada, CCJS, Victim Services Survey, 2007/2008. According to the information collected from 679 victim service agencies (excluding compensation programs), the cost of providing formal services to victims of crime in Canada was $178.7 million in 2007/08. This amount excludes costs incurred to administer criminal injury compensation and other financial benefits programs, and other costs not specifically related to the formal delivery of services provided to victims. Therefore, the average cost was $263,181 (=$178,700,000/679).
- Table note z
Source: Statistics Canada, CCJS, Victim Services Survey, 2007/2008. According to the survey, there were 884 victim service agencies in the fiscal year ending March 31, 2008. Out of the 884 agencies, 5 agencies offered only criminal injuries compensation programs or other financial benefits programs to victims. Therefore, there were 879 (=884-5) victim service providers.
- Table note aa
Source: Statistics Canada, CCJS, Victim Services Survey, 2007/2008. According to the survey, 686 service providers indicated they had assisted close to 406,000 victims from April 1, 2007 to March 31, 2008. Therefore, the average number of victims served by each agency was about 592 (=406,000/686).
- Table note ab
Source: Statistics Canada, GSS 2009, Cycle 23, Victimization. Main File: PSX_Q190, XCS_Q180, PSP_Q190, SCS_Q180; Incident File: CIR_Q105_C01, TTA_Q270.
|Operating Costs of Shelters||$347,373|
|Operating Costs of Crisis Lines||$354,368|
|Operating Costs of Victim Services||$3,720,767|
|Total Operating Costs of Social Services||$4,422,508|
C.5 Other Related Expenditures
|Investments to Combat the Criminal Use of Firearms (ICCUF)||$10,000,000Table note ac|
|Firearms Action Plan||$14,000,000Table note ad|
|Total other expenditures (10,000,000+$14,000,000)||$24,000,000|
|Total Other Expenditures on Crime Prevention||$24,000,000|
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