Overrepresentation of Indigenous People in the Canadian Criminal Justice System: Causes and Responses


Aboriginal Justice Inquiry of Manitoba. 1991. Report, Volume 1: The Justice System and
Aboriginal People. Winnipeg: Queens Printer.
Anand, Sanjeev. 2000. “The sentencing of aboriginal offenders, continued confusion and
persisting problems: A comment on the decision in R. v. Gladue” in Canadian Journal of Criminology 42(3): 412-420.
B.C. Resources Community Project. 1998. Geography Department, University of Northern
British Columbia. Prince George, B.C.
Bressan, Angela, and Kyle Coady. 2017. Guilty pleas among Indigenous people in Canada.
Ottawa: Research & Statistics Division, Department of Justice.
Clark, Scott. 1989. The Mi’kmaq and Criminal Justice in Nova Scotia. Report prepared for The
Royal Commission on the Donald Marshall, Jr., Prosecution. Halifax: Province of Nova Scotia.
Clark, Scott. 2007. Final Report: Northern Policing Review (Pan-Territorial).
Clark, Scott. 2013. A Review of the Northwest Territories Domestic Violence Treatment Option
Court and PARTNER Program. Report prepared for the Department of Justice of the Northwest Territories.
Clark, Scott. 2016a. Evaluation of the Aboriginal Youth Court, Toronto. Available on the
Aboriginal Legal Services
Clark, Scott. 2016b. Evaluation of the Gladue Court, Old City Hall, Toronto. Available on the
Aboriginal Legal Services
Clark, Scott and Tammy Landau. 2012. “Aboriginal Justice Policy in Canada” in Karim Ismaili,
Jane B. Sprott and Kim Varma (eds.), Canadian Criminal Justice Policy: Contemporary Perspectives, Toronto: Oxford University Press.
Coates, Ken. 2008. The Indian Act and the Future of Aboriginal Governance in Canada. Research
paper prepared for the National Centre for First Nations Governance. Issued as part of the Canadian Electronic Library, documents collection.
Commission on First Nations and Métis Peoples and Justice Reform. 2004. Final Report.
Saskatchewan: Queen’s Printer.
Commission on Systemic Racism in the Ontario Criminal Justice System. 1995. Final Report.
Ontario: Queen’s Printer.
Crosby, Andrew and Jeffrey Monaghan. 2012. “Settler governmentality in Canada and the
Algonquins of Barriere Lake” in Security Dialogue, 43(5): 421-438.
Crnkovich, Mary. 1995. The Role of the Victim in the Criminal Justice System – Circle Sentencing
in Inuit Communities. Paper presented at the Canadian Institute for the Administration of Justice Conference, Banff, Alberta, October, 1995.
Department of Justice Canada. 2005. Aboriginal Justice Strategy Formative Evaluation:
Summary, Recommendations and Management Response. Ottawa.
Department of Justice Canada. 2007. Aboriginal Justice Strategy Summative Evaluation: Final
Report. Ottawa.
Department of Justice Canada. 2017a. Spotlight on Gladue: Challenges, Experiences, and
Possibilities in Canada’s Criminal Justice System.
Department of Justice Canada. 2017b. Evaluation of the Aboriginal Justice Strategy December
2016. Ottawa.
Department of Justice Canada. 2018a. “Indigenous overrepresentation in provincial/territorial
corrections.” Just Facts. Research and Statistics Division.
Department of Justice Canada, 2018b. Indigenous Justice Program.
Department of Justice Canada, 2018c. “Trends in Adult Federal Custody Populations.” Just
Facts. Research and Statistics Division.
Depew, Robert. 1992. Policing native communities: some principles and issues in organizational
theory. Canadian Journal of Criminology 34: 3-4: 461-478.
Dickson-Gilmore, Jane and Carol La Prairie. 2005. Will the Circle Be Unbroken? Aboriginal
communities, restorative justice, and the challenges of conflict and change. Toronto: University of Toronto.
Doob, Anthony N. and Jane B. Sprott. 2007. “The Sentencing of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal
Youth: Understanding Local Variation”, Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice 49, 1: 109-123.
Deukmedjian, John Edward. 2008. “The Rise and Fall of RCMP Community Justice Forums:
Restorative Justice and Public Safety Interoperability in Canada” Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice 50(2): 117-151.
Friedland, Hadley. 2009. “Different Stories: Aboriginal people, Order, and the Failure of the
Criminal Justice System” Saskatchewan Law Review, 72: 105-142.
Health Canada. 2010a. “First Nations, Inuit and Aboriginal Health: Tuberculosis (TB)
Hornick, Joseph P., Karolina Kluz and Lorne D. Bertrand. 2011. An Evaluation of Yukon’s
Community Wellness Court. Report prepared for the Yukon Department of Justice.
Hylton, John H., 2005. Canadian Innovations in the Provision of Policing Services to Aboriginal
Peoples. Paper produced for the Ipperwash Inquiry (Ontario).
Iacobucci, The Honourable Frank. 2013. Final Report: First Nations Representation on Ontario
Juries. Ontario: Queen’s Printer.
Jackson, Michael. 1988. Locking Up Natives in Canada. Report of the Canadian Bar Association
Committee on Imprisonment and Release. Ottawa: Canadian Bar Association.
Kellough, Gail and Scot Wortley. 2002. “Remand for Pleas: Bail Decisions and Plea Bargaining as
Commensurate Decisions” in British Journal of Criminology 42(1): 186-210.
Knazan, Judge Brent. 2003. “Sentencing Aboriginal Offenders in a Large City – the Toronto
Gladue (Aboriginal Persons) Court”. Paper presented at the National Judicial Institute Aboriginal Law Seminar, Calgary.
Knazan, Judge Brent. 2009. “Time for Justice: One Approach to R. v. GladueCriminal Law
Quarterly 54(4): 431-446.
Law Reform Commission of Canada, 1991. Report on Aboriginal Peoples and Criminal Justice:
Equality, Respect and the Search for Justice. Ottawa: Law Reform Commission of Canada.
Levy, Jacob and Iris Marion Young (editors). 2011. Colonialism and Its Legacies. Lexington Books.
Linden, Rick, Don Clairmont, and Chris Murphy. 2001. Aboriginal Policing in Manitoba: A Report
to the Aboriginal Justice Implementation Commission. Winnipeg.
Mann, Michelle M. 2009. Good Intentions, Disappointing Results: A Progress Report on Federal
Aboriginal Corrections. Prepared for the Office of the Correctional Investigator. Ottawa.
Manzano-Munguia, Maria C. 2011. “Indian Policy and Legislation: Aboriginal Identity Survival in
Canada” Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism, 11(3): 404-426.
Maurutto, Paula and Kelly Hannah-Moffat. 2016. “Aboriginal Knowledges in Specialized Courts:
Emerging Practices in Gladue Courts” in Canadian Journal of Law and Society, Vol 31: 3.
National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls. 2019. Reclaiming
Power and Place: The Final Report of the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls.
Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI). 2012. Final Report: Spirit Matters:
Aboriginal people and the Corrections and Conditional Release Act. Ottawa.
Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI). 2014.
Annual Report of the Office of the Correctional Investigator 2013-2014
Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI). 2018.
Annual Report of the Office of the Correctional Investigator 2017-2018.
Palmater, Pamela D. 2011. Beyond Blood: Rethinking Indigenous Identity. Saskatoon: Purich
Pfefferle, Brian R. 2008. “Gladue Sentencing: Uneasy Answers to the Hard Problem of Aboriginal
Over-Incarceration” Manitoba Law Journal 13: 113-143.
Proulx, Craig. 2003. Reclaiming Aboriginal Justice, Identity, and Community. Saskatoon: Purich
Roach, Kent. 2009. “One Step Forward, Two Steps Back: Gladue at Ten and the Courts of
Appeal” Criminal Law Quarterly 54(4): 470-505.
Roach, Kent and Jonathan Rudin. 2000. “Gladue: The judicial and political reception of a
promising decision” in Canadian Journal of Criminology 42(3): 355-388.
Ross, Rupert. 1992. Dancing with a Ghost. Toronto: Penguin.
Ross, Rupert. 1996. Return to the Teachings. Toronto: Penguin.
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP). 1996. Bridging the Cultural Divide: a report on
Aboriginal people and criminal justice in Canada. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada.
Rudin, Jonathan. 2007. Aboriginal Peoples and the Criminal Justice System. Report prepared for
the Ipperwash Inquiry (Ontario).
Rudin, Jonathan. 2009. "Addressing Aboriginal Overrepresentation Post-Gladue: A Realistic
Assessment of How Social Change Occurs” Criminal Law Quarterly 54(4): 447-469.
Rudin, Jonathan. 2018. “The (in)justice system and Indigenous people” in Widening the Lens on
Criminal Justice Reform (article series), Policy Options.
Sprott, Jane B. and Anthony N. Doob. 2002. “Two Solitudes or Just One? – Provincial Differences
in Youth Court Judges and the Operation of Youth Courts” in Canadian Journal of Criminology 44(2): 165-180.
Standing Committee on Indigenous and Northern Affairs. 2017.
Breaking Point: The Suicide Crisis in Indigenous Communities.
Statistics Canada. 2005. “Collecting Data on Aboriginal People in the Criminal Justice System:
Methods and Challenges
Statistics Canada. 2006. “Victimization and offending among the Aboriginal population in
Canada” Juristat Article, Vol. 26, no. 3
Statistics Canada. 2008. “Youth custody and community services in Canada, 2005/2006”
Juristat Article, Vol. 28, no. 8
Statistics Canada. 2009a. “2006 Census: Aboriginal Peoples in Canada in 2006: Inuit, Métis and
First Nations, 2006 Census
Statistics Canada. 2009b. “The incarceration of Aboriginal people in adult correctional services”
Juristat, 29(3).
Statistics Canada. 2009c. “2006 Aboriginal Population Profile for Toronto
Statistics Canada. 2010. “Aboriginal Statistics at a Glance
Statistics Canada. 2011. “Violent victimization of Aboriginal people in the Canadian provinces,
2009” Juristat Article
Statistics Canada. 2012. ‘Youth Correctional Statistics in Canada, 2010/2011’. Juristat Catalogue
Statistics Canada. 2014. ‘Admissions to Adult Correctional Services in Canada, 2011/2012’
Juristat Catalogue 85-002-x
Statistics Canada. 2016a. “Adult custody admissions to correctional services by aboriginal
identity.” Table 35-10-0016-01.
Statistics Canada. 2016b. Data Tables: 2016 Census.
Statistics Canada. 2016c. Juristat: Victimization of Aboriginal people in Canada, 2014.
Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics.
Statistics Canada. 2017a. “Aboriginal peoples in Canada: Key results from the 2016 census.”
The Daily released 2017-10-25.
Statistics Canada. 2017b. “Trends in the use of remand in Canada: 2004/2005 to 2014/2015”.
Statistics Canada. 2018a. “Adult and youth correctional statistics in Canada, 2016/2017”.
Talaga, Tanya. 2017. Seven Fallen Feathers: Racism, Death, and Hard Truths in a Northern City.
Toronto: Anansi Press.
Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. 2015a. Calls to Action.
Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. 2015b. Homepage.
Warry, Wayne. 1998. Unfinished Dreams: Community Healing and the Reality of Aboriginal Self-
Government. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Date modified: