Annex II – Definitions

Acquaintances: Term used for a wide range of potential relationships including, non-family members, authority figures in the community or someone they may have just met.

Binary: A division into two groups that are considered distinct and opposite.

Cisgender: People whose gender identity matches the sex that they were assigned at birth.

Colonialism: Policy of taking political and economic control of a territory and the people who are Indigenous to that area underpinned by racist doctrines of superiority.

Colonization: The action or process of settling and taking political and economic control of a territory and the people who are Indigenous to that area underpinned by racist doctrines of superiority.

Criminogenic needs: Criminogenic needs refer to issues, risk factors, characteristics and/or problems that relate to a person’s likelihood of reoffending or recidivism. Within a correctional setting, needs are measured related to the following areas: employment/education, community functioning, family/martial situation, associates, attitudes, personal/emotional, and substance abuse.

Culturally relevant: Responses to the distinct needs, values and lived experiences of diverse cultural groups, such as programming designed to be accessible and effective for participants.

Day parole: Type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which individuals are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require individuals to return nightly to an institution or halfway house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all individuals under federal correctional supervision apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.

E: Use with caution. As with any household survey, there are some data limitations. The results are based on a sample and are therefore subject to sampling errors. Somewhat different results might have been obtained if the entire population had been surveyed. STC uses the coefficient of variation (CV) as a measure of the sampling error. Estimates with a CV between 16.6 and 33.3 should be used with caution and the symbol “E” is used.

Full parole: Type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all individuals for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the individual under federal correctional supervision advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.

Gender: A person’s status in society as a man, woman, or as gender-diverse. A person’s gender may be influenced by several factors, including biological features, cultural and behavioural norms, and self-identity.

Gender-based violence: Violence targeted at a person because of their gender, gender expression, gender identity or perceived gender.

Gendered: Characteristic of, suited to, or biased toward or against a certain gender.

Gender-diverse: Refer to individuals who do not identify as exclusively male or exclusively female (for example, individuals who are non-binary or two-spirit).

Gender expression: The way in which people publicly present their gender through aspects such as dress, hair, make-up, body language, and voice.

Gender identity: A person’s internal and deeply felt sense of being a man or woman, both or neither. A person’s gender identity may or may not align with the gender typically associated with their sex.

Gender responsive approaches: Any programming or interventions that recognizes the lived realities of individuals, including pathways to crime, are impacted by gender.

Heterosexual: An individual sexually attracted to people of the opposite sex or gender.

Indigenous identity: Individuals that identify as First Nations, Inuit or Métis.

Intergenerational violence: Trauma that is passed from one generation to the next generation(s). Coping and adaptation patterns developed in response to traumatic experiences may be learned from or otherwise impact subsequent generations living with survivors, which in turn may be handed down to future generations. Intergenerational trauma may be experienced by groups of people with shared histories, and has resulted from, for example, the historical, systemic mistreatment of First Nations, the Inuit and the Métis Nation.

Intersectionality: The interconnected nature of various social or identity factors, such as sex, gender, age, race, ethnicity, Indigenous identity, economic status, immigrant status, sexual orientation, disability, and geography, as they apply to a given individual or group, viewed as impacting experiences of discrimination or disadvantage. For example, intersectionality recognizes that Indigenous women hold more than one identity: they are women and share some common experiences with other women, and they are Indigenous and have shared experiences with Indigenous men. Trying to understand Indigenous women’s experiences by focusing only on sex or only on Indigenous identity prevents us from seeing how these identities intersect to create a unique lived experience for Indigenous women that is different from the experiences of Indigenous men and non-Indigenous women.

Intimate partner violence: Violent offences that occur between current and former legally married spouses, common-law partners, boyfriends and girlfriends and other kind of intimate partners.

Non-binary: Person whose gender identity does not align with a binary understanding of gender such as man or woman. A non-binary person may identify as neither a man nor a woman, both, or anywhere along the gender spectrum.

Other Criminal Code violations: Police-reported offences are often grouped into five categories: violent crimes, property crimes, drug offences, other Criminal Code offences, and other federal statute violations. The category “other Criminal Code offences” includes crimes such as disturbing the peace and administration of justice offences, such as failure to comply with an order, failure to appear and breach of probation.

Overrepresented: Occurs when one segment of the population is disproportionately represented in an area compared with the overall population, often as a consequence of systemic discrimination.

Property offences: Property offences involve unlawful acts to gain property, but do not involve the use or threat of violence against the person. These can include offences such as theft, breaking and entering, burglary, auto theft, arson and vandalism.

Sex assigned at birth (sex): A person’s biological status as male, female, or intersex based on their primary sexual characteristics at birth.

Sexual assault: Refers to all incidents of unwanted sexual activity, including sexual attacks and sexual touching.

Sexual orientation: This can refer to the behaviour, that is, whether a person’s partner or partners are of the same or the opposite sex, and to the identity, that is, whether a person considers himself or herself to be heterosexual, homosexual or bisexual.

Shelters: Places where women (and their children) can go to stay, typically when fleeing domestic violence from their partners or spouses.

Social exclusion: Describes a state in which individuals do not have full access to opportunities available to others. This access may be denied because of factors such as race, class, disability or gender.

Socio-economically marginalized: Being blocked from or denied full access to economic opportunities, social opportunities, or resources (e.g., education, employment, housing) that other members of society have because of one or more personal characteristic(s) (e.g., poverty, health and mental health, sex and gender, race, ethnicity, Indigenous identity, immigrant status).

Spousal violence: Violent offences that occur between legally married spouses, common-law partners, as well as separated and divorced spouses.

Trans: Umbrella term that refers to transgender, non-binary and other gender-diverse people. The opposite of cisgender.

Transgender: A person whose current gender does not align with the sex that they were assigned at birth.

Trauma- and violence-informed approaches: Policies and practices that recognize the connections between violence, trauma, negative health outcomes and behaviours.

Two-spirit person: Umbrella term for some Indigenous individuals who identify as having both a female and male spirit within them or whose gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation or spiritual identity is not limited by the binary classification of gender as woman or man. 

Unwanted sexual behaviour: Includes unwanted physical contact (e.g., touching or getting too close in a sexual manner), indecent exposure, unwanted comments about sex or gender, unwanted comments about sexual orientation or assumed sexual orientation and unwanted sexual attention (e.g., comments, whistles, gestures, or body language).

Violent offences: Involve the use of or threatened use of violence against a person, including homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual assault, and robbery. Robbery is considered a violent offence because, unlike other theft offences, it involves the use or threat of violence.

Women: All people who identify as women, whether they are cisgender or transgender women.