Legal Aid in Canada, 2018-19

List of tables

Legal Aid in Canada, 2018-19

The Legal Aid Survey was a Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (CCJS)/Statistics Canada annual survey on revenues, expenditures, personnel, and caseload statistics associated with the administration and delivery of legal aid in Canada. The Legal Aid Survey was first conducted in 1983-84 and data was last published in 2016 (for fiscal year 2014-15). After the discontinuation of the Legal Aid Survey in 2016, the Department of Justice Canada (JUS) began data collection and reporting in-house. This is the third annual edition of this report.

Access to justice is a key issue facing all stakeholders in the justice system. Legal aid services support access to justice for those who are economically disadvantaged and unable to pay for a lawyer on their own.

The federal government supports legal aid services in the provinces and territories through two sources. The Department of Justice Canada’s (JUS) Legal Aid Program provides funding to all provinces for criminal legal aid through contribution agreements. These agreements also support immigration and refugee (I&R) legal aid in the six provinces (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Newfoundland and Labrador, Ontario, and Quebec) that provide services in this area. The federal government supports criminal and civil legal aid in the territories through consolidated access to justice services agreements.

The Department of Finance Canada’s Canada Social Transfer (CST) is a block transfer payment provided to each province and territory for provincial health care, post-secondary education, social assistance and social services. Civil legal aid is an eligible expenditure under the CST.Footnote 1

While policies related to criminal legal aid are a shared federal/provincial/territorial responsibility, each province and territory is responsible for the delivery of legal aid services based on their own policies and procedures.

Provinces and territories contributed close to three quarters of legal aid revenues in 2018-19

Legal aid plans are the organizations responsible for providing legal aid services to those who cannot afford a lawyer. There are 13 recognized legal aid plans in Canada. Legal aid plans reported receiving total funding of more than $1 billion in 2018-19. Federal and provincial/territorial government sources contributed the majority of this amount—89% of the total. The remaining funding was received from client contributions, cost recoveries from legal settlements, and contributions from the legal profession and other sources (Table 1).

Provincial and territorial (P/T) governments directly fund legal aid. In 2018-19, provincial and territorial governments contributed more than $748 million to legal aid plans across Canada, which amounts to 74% of total legal aid revenues.

In 2018-19, JUS contributed more than $152 million to the provinces and territories for the delivery of criminal legal aid, civil legal aid (in the territories), and I&R legal aid (where applicable). This amounts to 15% of total legal aid revenues (Table 1). Ontario and Quebec were the largest legal aid plans, comprising 49% and 18% of all legal aid plan revenues respectively, or 67% for the two plans combined (Table 1).

Table 1 - Legal aid plan revenuestable note 1, by type of revenue, annual, 2018-19
  Type of Revenue
Total legal aid plan revenues
Dollars (%)
Federal contributions from 2018-2019 agreementstable note 2 P/T contributions to legal aid planstable note 4
Dollars (%)
Client contributions and cost recoveries to legal aid planstable note 5
Dollars (%)
Contributions of the legal profession to legal aid plans and other revenuestable note 6
Dollars (%)
Criminal (+civil in Territories) Dollars (%) I&Rtable note 3
Dollars (%)
NL 17,472,714 (100) 2,264,383 (13) 8,766 (.1) 14,614,351 (84) 174,705 (1) 410,509 (2)
PEI 900,518 (100) 452,107 (50) n/a 448,411 (50) - -
NS 27,623,146 (100) 3,924,203 (14) n/a 23,488,112 (85) 31,378 (.1) 179,453 (1)
NB 9,500,687 (100) 2,574,596 (27) n/a 6,162,303 (65) 118,651 (1) 645,137 (7)
QC 182,618,951(100) 25,224,744 (14) 6,500,000 (4) 145,404,356 (80) 4,122,331 (2) 1,367,520 (1)
ON 495,872,595(100) 47,426,321 (10) 16,904,311 (3) 340,660,468 (69) 10,618,579 (2) 80,262,916 (16)
MB 37,910,969 (100) 6,176,335 (16) 481,000 (1) 27,581,272 (73) 1,440,738 (4) 2,231,624 (6)
SK 25,928,256 (100) 5,659,006 (22) n/a 20,050,994 (77) 10,799 (0) 207,457 (1)
AB 109,880,465(100) 13,107,876 (12) 1,004,900 (1) 89,987,224 (82) 4,707,722 (4) 1,072,743 (1)
BC 95,781,858 (100) 15,767,936 (16) 2,093,000 (2) 70,711,526 (74) - 7,209,396 (8)
YK  - - n/a - - -
NT  - - n/a - - -
NU 12,318,000 (100) 2,700,818 (22) n/a 9,617,182 (78) 100 (0) -
CA 1,015,808,259 (100) 125,278,325 (12) 26,991,977 (3) 748,726,199 (74) 21,225,003 (2) 93,586,755 (9)

– Refers to data that were not available or that were not provided by the jurisdiction as reported in the Statement of Final Claim.

Notes:


A majority of jurisdictions spend more on criminal matters than civil matters

While the data collection for the Legal Aid Annual Report is done at a national level, it is important to note that from year-to-year some limitations on coverage exist and some legal aid plans may be unable to report all or some data elements. Due to these limitations, Canada-level totals may not include all provinces and territories.

Table 2a shows 2018-19 legal aid plan expenditures, broken down by type of expenditure. Overall, 48% of legal aid expenditures were related to criminal matters, 6% were related to I&R matters, and 45% were related to all other civil matters. Ontario and Quebec had the highest legal aid expenditures in the country, with 50% of all expenditures as a proportion of the national total from Ontario and 18% from Quebec.

Looking at legal aid expenditures by jurisdiction, just three jurisdictions (Quebec, Ontario, and Prince Edward Island) spend more on civil matters than criminal matters. The fact that less than half of legal aid expenditures are related to criminal law at the national level is driven by lower prevalence Quebec and Ontario. These two provinces have the largest populations, and spend more overall -- contributing more to the average. The jurisdictions with the highest proportion of total legal aid expenditures on criminal matters (of all legal aid expenditures for that jurisdiction) were Saskatchewan (77%), and Manitoba (72%).

Table 2b breaks out the total administrative costs for legal aid plans in 2018-19. These expenses are also reflected under ‘legal aid plan expenditures’ in table 2a, and they amounted to over $175 million dollars.

Table 2a - Legal aid plan expenditurestable note 1, by type of expenditure, 2018-19
Total
Dollars (%)
Legal aid plan expenditurestable note 2
(including direct administrative and other costs)
Criminal matters
Dollars (%)
Civil matters
I&Rtable note 3
Dollars (%)
All other civil
Dollars (%)
NL 17,315,992 (100) 10,096,721 (58) 17,919 (0.1) 7,201,352 (42)
PEI 1,940,114 (100) 900,518 (46) n/a 1,039,596 (54)
NS 26,246,776 (100) 15,565,817 (59) n/a 10,680,959 (41)
NB 8,459,011 (100) 4,513,694 (53) n/a 3,945,317 (47)
QC 177,790,570 (100) 73,301,729 (41) 6,565,499 (4) 97,923,342 (55)
ON 482,705,194 (100) 205,488,387 (43) 43,013,263 (9) 234,203,544 (48)
MB 34,168,542 (100) 24,638,062 (72) 481,634 (1) 9,048,846 (26)
SK 26,287,133 (100) 20,268,019 (77) n/a 6,019,114 (23)
AB 102,822,606 (100) 66,479,629 (65) 1,027,882 (1) 35,315,095 (34)
BC 81,874,164 (100) 48,579,179 (59) 3,920,459 (5) 29,374,526 (36)
YK - - n/a -
NT - - n/a -
NUtable note 4 11,941,220 (100) - n/a -
CA 971,551,322 (100) 469,831,755 (48) 55,026,656 (6) 434,751,691 (45)

– Refers to data that were not available or that were not provided by the jurisdiction as reported in the Statement of Final Claim.

Notes:


Table 2b - Total legal aid plan administrative costs, 2018-19 (Dollars)

NL

2,854,080

PEI

356,322

NS

1,810,749

NB

2,279,332

QC

49,267,339

ON

76,807,860

MB

5,827,663

SK

1,694,395

AB

14,102,302

BC

19,189,471

YK

-

NT

-

NU

1,578,039

Canada

175,767,552

Legal aid services are delivered primarily by private bar lawyers

Table 3 provides an overview of the proportion of staff lawyers versus private bar lawyers delivering services at legal aid plans. It is not intended to represent the case loads of the private bar versus staff lawyers. In some cases a legal aid plan may have a higher proportion of private bar lawyers, but the staff lawyers at that plan may be managing a higher proportion of cases. Looking at the breakdown of legal aid service delivery by type of lawyer, in 2018-19, 89% of the over 11,000 lawyers providing legal aid services in Canada were private bar lawyers (Table 3). Staff lawyers made up 10% of lawyers providing direct legal aid services to clients and other lawyers (such as Executive Directors) made up 1%.

Among private bar lawyers, 47% provided both criminal and civil law services. There were roughly equal proportions of private bar lawyers providing only criminal law services or only civil law services (24% and 23%). Of the staff lawyers, the highest proportion provided both criminal and civil law services (69%), while 17% provided only criminal services and 5% provided only civil law services.

Overall, 31% of the 11,820 lawyers providing legal aid services in Canada were in Ontario, and 26% were in Alberta. When looking at the breakdown between private and staff lawyers within each province/territory, Alberta and British Columbia had the highest proportions of private bar lawyers (97% and 97%), while Newfoundland and Labrador and Yukon had the highest proportions of staff lawyers (70% and 58%) (Table 3).

Table 3 – Legal aid service delivery by private bar, staff, and other lawyers, 2018-19
  Total lawyers providing legal aid services N (%) Type of lawyer providing legal aid services
Private bar lawyerstable note 1 Staff lawyerstable note 2 Other lawyers (e.g. Executive Director)table note 3
Criminal I&Rtable note 4 Civil Criminal & Civil TOTAL N (%) Criminal I&R Civil Criminal & Civil TOTAL N (%) Criminal I&R Civil Criminal &Civil Criminal &Civil
NL 104 (100) - n/a - 28 28 (27) - n/a - 73 73 (70) - n/a - 3 3 (3)
PEI 36 (100) 9 n/a 11 7 27 (75) 3 n/a 5 0 8 (22) 0 n/a 0 1 1 (3)
NS 349 (100) - n/a - 248 248 (71) - n/a - - 97 (28) - n/a - - 4 (41)
NB 140 (100) 22 n/a 49 37 108 (77) 21 n/a 9 0 30 (21) 0 n/a 1 1 2 (1)
QC 2,643 (100) - n/a - 2,237 2,237 (85) n/a - 341 341 (13) - n/a - 65 65 (3)
ON 3,716 (100) 1,355 236 1,169 587 3,347 (90) 119 12 2 195 328 (9) 11 2 0 28 41 (1)
MB 352 (100) 0 0 0 292 292 (83) 23 0 18 13 54 (15) 0 0 0 6 6 (2)
SK. 227 (100) 0 n/a 0 143 143 (63) 0 n/a 0 83 83 (37) 0 n/a 0 1 1 (0)
AB 3,087 (100) 708 262 829 1,186 2,985 (97) - n/a - 102 102 (3) - - - - -
CB 1,054 (100) 409 61 349 198 1,017 (97) 14 1 7 3 25 (2) 0 0 0 12 12 (1)
YK 19 (100) 2 n/a 6 0 8 (42) 1 n/a 0 10 11 (58) 0 n/a 0 1 1 (5)
NT 35 (100) - n/a 19 (54) 9 n/a 7 - 16 (46) - n/a - - -
NU 58 (100) 29 n/a 7 - 36 (62) 12 n/a 8 - 20 (36) 1 n/a - 1 2 (3)
CA 11,820 (100) 2,534 559 2,420 4,963 10,495 (89) 202 13 56 820 1,188 (10) 12 2 1 119 138 (1)

– Refers to data that were not available or that were not provided by the jurisdiction as reported in the Statement of Final Claim.


Non-lawyers made up 15% of legal aid plan personnel

Legal aid plans employ a variety of non-lawyer personnel to support the delivery of legal aid services to clients. While lawyers made up 85% of legal aid plan personnel, non-lawyers made up the other 15% (Table 4).

Of the 1,967 non-lawyers working for legal aid plans, the most common were support staff (57%), while intake workers (25%), legal assistants (12%), and articling students (3%) were the next most common types of non-lawyer personnel. ‘Other’ (i.e. managers) (2%) and paralegals (1%) made up the remaining personnel (Table 4).

Table 4 - Legal aid plan personnel as of March 31, 2018-19
  Total legal aid plan personnel Lawyers providing legal aid Non-lawyers
Total lawyers Private bar lawyerstable note 1 Staff lawyerstable note 2 Othertable note 3 Total non-lawyers Intake workerstable note 4 Support Stafftable note 5 Para-legalstable note 6 Legal assistantstable note 7 Articling studentstable note 8 Other (managers)table note 9
NL 175 (100) 104 (59) 28 73 3 71 (41) 4 23 3 33 8 0
PE 42 (100) 36 (86) 27 8 1 6 (14) 0 6 0 0 0 0
NS 181.2 (100) 101 (56) 97 4 80.2 (44) 0 8 0 67.2 3 2
NB 178 (100) 140 (79) 108 30 2 38 (21) 12 5 0 6 0 15
QC 3,203 (100) 2,643 (83) 2,237 341 65 560 (18) 73 445 0 26 16 0
ON 4,337 (100) 3,716 (86) 3,347 328 41 621 (14) 246 350 11 3 11 0
MB 452 (100) 352 (78) 292 54 6 100 (22) 29 20 4 34 12 1
SK 299 (100) 226 (76) 143 83 0 73 (24) 5 7 11 43 1 6
AB 3,257 (100) 3,087 (95) 2,985 102 0 170 (5) 71 73 0 23 3 0
BC 1,198 (100) 1,017 (85) 1,017 0 0 181 (5) 27 154 - - - -
YK 26 (100) 19 (73) 8 10 1 7 (27) 2 5 0 0 0
NT 52 (100) 35 (67) 19 16 17 (33) 7 10
NU 101 58 (57) 36 20 2 43 (43) 21 16 - - - 6
CA 13,501.2 (100) 11,534 (85) 10,247 1,162 125 1,967 (15) 490 1,119 29 235.2 54 40

- Refers to data that were not available or that were not provided by the jurisdiction as reported in the Statement of Final Claim.


Over 593,000 legal aid applications were received in 2018-19

When looking at applications for legal aid, the number of applications reflects the number of individual requests for assistance, rather than the total number of persons seeking assistance – this means that a single individual could file multiple applications. Of the 593,676 applications for summary or full legal representation received in 2018-19, over half (54%) were for criminal matters, while 45% were for civil matters (including I&R). The highest proportion of civil matter applications was for family matters (44%), followed by child protection (22%), non-family matters (21%), and 12% for I&R. Of the 318,039 applications for criminal legal aid, 92% were from adults and 7% were from youth (remaining 1% is from uncategorized data from NU) (Table 5).

Quebec received the most applications at 264,498, which accounted for 45% of all applications received nationally in 2018-19. Ontario and Alberta were the next two provinces that received the most applications (21% and 9% respectively). Looking at the breakdown between criminal and civil applications within each province/territory, Nunavut (80%) and Yukon (73%), had the highest proportion of criminal applications compared to civil. Quebec (54%) and New Brunswick (50%) had the lowest proportion of criminal applications compared to civil.

Table 5 - Legal aid applications receivedtable note 1, by type of matter, 2018-19
  Total legal aid applications N (%) Criminal legal aid applications P/T offences N (%)table note 3 Civil legal aid applications
Total criminal applications
N (%)
Adult Youthtable note 2 Total civil applications (incl I&R) N (%) Child Protectiontable note 4 Familytable note 5 Non-familytable note 6 I&Rtable note 7
NL 7,915 (100) 4,618 (58) 4,160 458 - 3,297 (42) 329 2,488 455 25
PE 1,534 (100) 1,072 (70) 1,005 67 - 462 (30) - - - n/a
NStable note 8 39,971 (100) 26,187 (66) 24,812 1,375 850 (2) 12,934 (32) 1,248 9,903 1,783 n/a
NB 4,505 (100) 2,253 (50) 2,049 204 12 (0.3) 2,240 (50) 197 2,042 1 n/a
QC 264,498 (100) 115,231 (44) 104,826 10,405 6,495 (3) 142,772 (54) 41,693 43,682 46,043 11,354
ON 127,331 (100) 67,856 (53) 63,865 3,991 - 59,475 (47) 6,922 28,802 6,060 17,691
MB 33,129 (100) 22,692 (69) 20,323 2,369 74 (0.2) 10,363 (31) 2,554 6,478 608 723
SK 18,029 (100) 12,743 (71) 11,107 1,636 - 5,286 (29) 829 4,457 - n/a
AB 52,820 (100) 37,157 (62) 35,327 1,830 183 (0.3) 15,480 (29) 1,983 11,919 858 720
BC 37,018 (100) 22,982 (62) 22,019 963 1,038 (3) 12,998 (35) 3,018 7,951 - 2,029
YK 2,547 (100) 1,867 (73) 1,748 119 47 (2) 653 (26) - 426 207 n/a
NT 1,264 (100) 899 (71) 865 34 - 365 (29) - 365 - n/a
NUtable note9 3,115 (100) 2,482 (80) - - - 633 (20) - 316- 234 n/a
CA 593,676 (100) 318,039 (54) 292,106 23,451 8,699 (2) 266,958 (45) 58,856 118,403 56,249 32,542

– Refers to data that were not available or that were not provided by the jurisdiction as reported in the Statement of Final Claim.


More than eight in ten legal aid applications received were approved for full legal representation

An application for legal aid may be approved for either summary or full legal representation. Summary services include the provision of legal advice, information, or any other type of minimal legal service granted to an individual during a formal interview. Full legal representation represents more extensive legal assistance. Applications not approved for full legal representation may receive summary services instead. Out of the 593,676 applications received in 2018-19 (table 5), 482,279 applications, or 81%, were approved for full service (table 6).

Table 6 shows the number of approved applications for full legal representation. In 2018-19, there were 482,279 applications approved for full legal representation; 56% of these were for criminal legal aid, 43% were for civil legal aid (including I&R), and the remainder for provincial/territorial offences. Of the criminal applications, the majority (90%) were for adult matters, and 9% were for youth matters (the remaining 1% is uncategorized data from Yukon). For civil matters, more than a third (39%) were for family matters, 26% were for child protection matters, and 20% were for other civil matters. I&R matters made up 15% of civil applications in the provinces that provide I&R legal aid services.

When looking at the proportion of approved applications by province/territory and type of matter, Nunavut (81%), Prince Edward Island (78%) and Manitoba (78%) had the highest proportion of approved applications that were criminal as opposed to civil. New Brunswick had a similar proportion of criminal and civil legal aid applications approved for full legal representation at 54% approved applications that were criminal.

In Ontario there were 2,611 adult and 150 youth applications managed by law clinics, which made up 4% of Ontario’s total approved criminal applications.

Table 6 - Approved legal aid applications for full servicetable note 1, by staff and private lawyers, annual, 2018-19
  Total approved legal aid applications
N (%)
Criminal applicationstable note 2 P/T offencestable note 5
N (%)
Civil applicationstable note 3
Total approved criminal applications
N (%)
Adult Youthtable note 4 Total approved civil legal aid applications
N (%)
Child Protectiontable note 6 Familytable note 7 Non-Familytable note 8 I&Rtable note 9
NL 4,142 (100) 2,915 (70) 2,508 407 - 1,227 (30) 222 914 82 9
PE 1,271 (100) 991 (78) 924 67 - 280 (22) - - - n/a
NS 19,399 (100) 13,806 (71) 12,840 966 51 (0) 5,542 (29) 1,017 3,707 818 n/a
NB 3,445 (100) 1,851 (54) 1,655 196 6 (0) 1,588 (46) - - - n/a
QC 216,076 (100) 95,014 (44) 85,061 9,953 5,031 (2) 116,031 (54) 39,183 33,150 33,387 10,311
ON 115,084 (100) 63,904 (56) 59,014 4,141 0 51,180 (44) 6,212 23,191 5,598 16,179
MB 36,047 (100) 28,046 (78) 25,210 2,836 66 (0) 7,935 (22) 2,214 4,667 399 655
SK 15,563 (100) 11,301 (73) 9,695 1,606 - 4,262 (27) 765 3,497 - n/a
AB 38,401 (100) 29,434 (77) 27,609 1,825 143 (0) 8,824 (23) 1,567 6,463 100 694
BC 27,283 (100) 18,706 (69) 17,765 941 530 (2) 8,047 (29) 2,286 4,158 - 1603
YK 1,460 (100) 1,058 (72) 992 66 47 (3) 402 (28) - 426 207 n/a
NT 1,030 (100) 767 (74) 734 33 263 (26) 44 219 n/a
NU 3,078 (100) 2,481 (81) - - - 597 (19) 80 300 217 n/a
CA 482,279 (100) 270,274 (56) 244,007 23,037 5,874 206,178 (43) 53,590 80,692 40,808 29,451

– Refers to data that were not available or that were not provided by the jurisdiction as reported in the Statement of Final Claim.


Financial ineligibility was the most common reason for application refusal

Refused applications refer to all requests for legal aid that have been denied legal services. This includes applications for which no services have been approved, as well as those applications denied for full legal representation that subsequently receive summary services. Overall, of the 97,023 applications (both criminal and civil) where a reason for refusal was reported, 55% were refused for financial ineligibility. ‘Coverage restrictions’ and ‘other reasons for refusal’ were the next most common reasons for refusal (20%, and 20% respectively) (Table 7).

When looking at the breakdown of reasons for refusal by province/territory, Prince Edward Island and Quebec had the highest proportions of applications refused for financial ineligibility (90% and 78%). Newfoundland and Labrador (50%) and New Brunswick (45%) had the highest proportions of applications refused for coverage restrictions.

Table 7 - Refused legal aid applicationstable note 1, by reason for refusal, all legal aid matters, 2018-19

Total reasons for refusaltable note 2
N (%)

Reasons for refusal

Financial ineligibilitytable note 3
 N (%)

Coverage restrictionstable note 4 
N (%)

Lack of merittable note 5
N (%)

Non-compliance or abusetable note 6
N (%) 

Other reasons for refusaltable note 7 
N (%)

NL

2,941 (100) 560 (19) 1,474 (50) 510 (17) - 397 (13)

PEI

100 (100) 90 (90) 3 (3) 6 (6) - 1 (1)

NS

2,175 (100) 1,184 (54) 308 (14) 163 (7) 158 (7) 362 (17)

NB

416 (100) 120 (29) 187 (45) 11 (3) 3 (1) 95 (23)

QC

45,818 (100) 35,872 (78) 5,287 (12) 1,302 (3) 71 (0) 3,286 (7)

ON

9,810 (100) 5,266 (54) 3,177 (32) 933 (10) - 434 (4)

MB

8,373 (100) 3,564 (43) 2,454 (29) 1036 (12) 256 (3) 1,063 (13)

SK

2,009 (100) 1,036 (52) 668 (33) 215 (11) 27 (1) 63 (3)

AB

15,159 (100) 4,377 (29) 3228 (21) - - 7,554 (50)

BC

9,735 (100) 1,589 (16) 2,200 (23) - - 5,946 (61)

YK

52 (100) 30 (58) 0 (0) 17 (33) 1 (2) 4 (8)

NT

401 (100) - - - - -

NU

34 (100) 18 (53) 13 (38) - 1 (3) 2 (6)

CA

97,023 (100) 53,706 (55) 18,999 (20) 4,193 (4) 517 (1) 19,207 (20)

– Refers to data that is not available or that was not provided by the jurisdiction as reported in the Statement of Final Claim.


Just over half of refused criminal legal aid applications were refused for financial ineligibility

When looking specifically at refused criminal legal aid applications, financial ineligibility remained the most common reason for refusal (55%), followed by coverage restrictions at 19% (Table 8). By province/territory, Nunavut and Quebec had the highest proportion of financial ineligibility refusals (100% and 88%), Newfoundland and Labrador had the highest proportion of coverage restriction refusals (63%), Yukon had the highest proportion of lack of merit refusals (36%), and Nova Scotia had the highest rate of refusal of all jurisdictions for non-compliance or abuse, at 18%.

Table 8 - Refused legal aid applicationstable note 1, by reason for refusal, criminal matters, 2018-19

Provinces

Total reasons for refusaltable note 2
N (%)

Reasons for refusal

Financial ineligibilitytable note 3
N (%)

Coverage restrictionstable note 4
N (%)

Lack of merittable note 5
N (%)

Non-compliance or abusetable note 6
N (%)

Other reasons for refusaltable note 7
N (%)

NL

1,201 (100) 255 (21) 759 (63) 83 (7) - 104 (9)

PEI

64 (100) 64 (100) 0 (0) 0 (0) - 0 (0)

NS

450 (100) 224 (50) 31 (7) 20 (4) 82 (18) 93 (21)

NB

255 (100) 37 (15) 134 (53) 4 (2) 1 (0) 79 (31)

QC

18,477 (100) 16,306 (88) 1,260 (7) 49 (0) 2 (0) 860 (5)

ON

4,682 (100) 2,189 (47) 1,987 (42) 316 (7) - 190 (4)

MB

5,124 (100) 2,118 (41) 1,774 (35) 155 (3) 193 (4) 884 (17)

SK

1,301 (100) 551 (42) 648 (50) 68 (5) 21 (2) 13 (1)

AB

8,107 (100) 1,880 (23) 1,142 (14) - - 5,085 (63)

BC

4,276 (100) 651 (15) 737 (17) - - 2,888 (68)

YK

22 (100) 12 (55) 0 (0) 8 (36) 1 (5) 1 (5)

NT

218 (100) - - - - -

NU

1 (100) 1 (100) 0 (0) 0(0) 0(0) 0 (0)

CA

44,178 (100) 24,288 (55) 8,472 (19) 703 (2) 300 (1) 10,197 (23)

– Refers to data that is not available or that was not provided by the jurisdiction as reported in the Statement of Final Claim.


Table 9 shows refused civil and I&R applications by reasons for refusal. The proportions remained consistent with criminal applications, with 56% of applications nationwide refused for financial ineligibility, and 19% falling under coverage restrictions. Prince Edward Island and Quebec had the highest proportions of ‘other civil’ applications refused for financial ineligibility (72% and 72%). Newfoundland and Labrador had the highest proportion of ‘other civil’ applications refused for coverage restrictions (41%), and Yukon and Manitoba had the highest proportion of ‘other civil’ applications refused for lack of merit (30% and 28%). For I&R applications, Quebec had the highest proportion refused for financial ineligibility (82%), Alberta had the highest proportion refused for coverage restrictions (31%), and Newfoundland and Labrador had the highest proportion refused for lack of merit (56%) (Table 9).

Table 9 – Refused legal aid applicationstable note 1, by reason for refusal, civil matters, 2018-19
 

Total refusedtable note 2
N (%)

Financial ineligibilitytable note 3
N (%)

Coverage restrictionstable note 4
N (%)

Lack of merittable note 5
N (%)

Non-compliance or abusetable note 6
N (%)

Other reasons for refusal table note 7
N (%)

NL

Other Civil 1,724 (100) 304 (18) 712 (41) 418 (24) - 290 (17)
I&R 16 (100) 1 (6) 3 (19) 9 (56) - 3 (19)
Total 1,740 (100) 305 (18) 715 (41) 427 (25) - 293 (17)

PEI

Other Civil 36 (100) 26 (72) 3 (8) 6 (17) 0 1 (3)
I&R
Total 36 (100) 26 (72) 3 (8) 6 (17) 0 1 (3)

NS

Other Civil 1711 (100) 959 (56) 269 (16) 140 (8) 76 (4) 267 (16)
I&R
Total 1711 (100) 959 (56) 269 (16) 140 (8) 76 (4) 267 (16)

NB

Other Civil 157 (100) 83 (53) 49 (31) 7 (4) 2 (1) 16 (10)
I&R
Total 157 (100) 83 (53) 49 (31) 7 (4) 2 (1) 16 (10)

QC

Other Civil 24,906 (100) 18,033 (72) 3,390 (14) 1,179 (5) 69 (0) 2,235 (9)
I&R 1,019 (100) 835 (82) 33 (3) 68 (7) 0 83 (8)
Total 25,925 (100) 18,868 (73) 3,423 (13) 1,247 (5) 69 (0) 2,318 (9)

ON

Other Civil 4,064 (100) 2,629 (65) 929 (23) 331 (8) - 175 (4)
I&R 1,064 (100) 448 (42) 261 (25) 286 (27) - 69 (6)
Total 5,128 (100) 3,077 (60) 1,190 (23) 617 (12) - 244 (5)

MB

Other Civil 3,106 (100) 1,391 (45) 643 (21) 857 (28) 59 (2) 156 (5)
I&R 108 (100) 45 (42) 15 (14) 22 (20) 4 (4) 22 (20)
Total 3,214 (100) 1,436 (45) 658 (20) 879 (27) 63 (2) 178 (6)

SK

Other Civil 708 (100) 485 (69) 20 (3) 147 (21) 6 (1) 50 (7)
I&R
Total 708 (100) 485 (69) 20 (3) 147 (21) 6 (1) 50 (7)

AB

Other Civil 6,797 (100) 2446 (36) 2004 (29) - - 2,347 (35)
I&R 213 (100) 46 (22) 65 (31) - - 102 (48)
Total 7,010 (100) 2492 (36) 2069 (30) - - 2,449 (35)

BC

Other Civil 4,525 (100) 734 (16) 1216 (27) - - 2,575 (57)
I&R 426 (100) 136 (32) 126 (30) - - 164 (38)
Total 4,951 (100) 870 (18) 1,342 (27) - - 2,739 (55)

YK

Other Civil 30 (100) 18 (60)  0 (0) 9 (30) 0 (0) 3 (10)
I&R  
Total 30 (100) 18 (60) 0 (0) 9 (30) 0 (0) 3 (10)

NT

Other Civil 183 (100) - - - - -
I&R  
Total 183 (100)  - - - - -

 

NU

Other Civil 33 (100) 17 (52) 13 (39) 0 (0) 1 (3) 2 (6)
I&R  
Total 33 (100)  17 (52) 13 (39) 0 (0) 1 (3) 2 (6)

CA

Other Civil 47,980 (100) 27,125 (57) 9,248 (19) 3,094 (6) 213 (0) 8,117 (17)
I&R 2,846 (100) 1,511 (53) 503 (18) 385 (14) 4 (0) 443 (16)
Canada 50,826 (100) 28,636 (56) 9,751 (19) 3,479 (7) 217 (0) 8,560 (17)

– Refers to data that were not available or that were not provided by the jurisdiction as reported in the Statement of Final Claim.


More than 8 in 10 applications for full legal representation from self-identified Indigenous clients were approved

Table 10 shows applications for full legal representation from individuals who self-identified as Indigenous in the provinces and territories that collect this data. Of the 62,706 applications received for all matters, 82% were approved. This proportion was similar among both criminal and civil applications, with 83% of criminal and 78% of civil applications approved. By jurisdiction, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island had the highest proportions of criminal appliations approved (99% and 97%), while Newfoundland and Labrador and Manitoba had the lowest (63% and 64%). For civil applications, Nova Scotia and Ontairo had the highest proportions of applications approved (90% and 88%), while Prince Edward Island and British Columbia had the lowest (62% and 65%).

Table 10 - Applicationstable note 1 for full legal representation, approvedtable note 2 and refusedtable note 3, by self-identified Indigenoustable note 4 status, type of matter, and province/territory, 2018-19
  All applications Criminal legal aid applications Civil legal aidtable note 6 applications
Total received Total approved Total refused Othertable note 5 Total received Total approved Total refused Other Total received Total approved Total refused Other
NL 635 (100) 399(63) 236 (37) - 635 (100) 399 (63) 236 (37) - - - - -
PE 98 (100) 88 (90) 6 (6) 4(4) 77 (100) 75 (97) 2 (3) 0 21 (100) 13 (62) 4 (19) 4 (19)
NS 2,291 (100) 2,221 (97) 70 (3) - 1,851 (100) 1,826 (99) 25 (1) 0 440 (100) 395 (90) 45 (10) 0
NB 340 (100) 278 (82) 29 (9) 33 (10) 224 (100) 190 (85) 22 (10) 12 (5) 116 (100) 88 (76) 7 (6) 21 (18)
QC - - -   - - - - - - - -
ON 19,269 (100) 17,628 (91) 1,067 (6) 574 (3) 14,735 (100) 13,653 (93) 728 (5) 354 (2) 4,534 (100) 3,975 (88) 339 (7) 220 (5)
MB 17,332 (100) 11,404 (66) 3,518 (20) 2,410 (14) 13,704 (100) 8,789 (64) 2,509 (18) 2,406 (18) 3,628 (100) 2,615 (72) 1,009 (28) 4 (0)
SK 12,059 (100) 10,634 (88) 1,010 (8) 415 (3) 9,129 (100) 8,275 (91) 738 (8) 116 (1) 2,930 (100) 2,359 (81) 272 (9) 299 (10)
AB - - -   - - - - - - - -
BC 9,517 (100) 7,578 (80) 1,939 (20) - 6,819 (100) 5,833 (86) 986 (14) - 2,698 (100) 1,745 (65) 953 (35) -
YK - - - - - - - - - - - -
NT 1,165 (100) 976 (84) 350 (30) 161 (-14) 857 (100) 750 (88) 205 (24) -98 (-11) 308 (120) 226 (73) 145 (47) -63 (-20)
NUtable note 7 - - -   - - - - - - - -
CA 62,706 (100) 51,206 (82) 8,225 (13) 3,275 (5) 48,031 (100) 39,790 (83) 5,451 (11) 2,790 (6) 14,675 (100) 11,416 (78) 2,774 (19) 485 (3)

– Refers to data that were not available or that were not provided by the jurisdiction as reported in the Statement of Final Claim.

Over 1.2 million duty counsel assists were provided in 2018-19

Duty counsel is legal assistance rendered without charge to unrepresented individuals who, in many cases, are about to make an appearance in court. Duty counsel services refer to services provided by a lawyer at a location other than a legal aid office, generally at court or a place of detention. Most often, the services provided are brief, and pertain to provision of summary services, docket court appearances, or representation at a first appearance or plea court.

As a result of the Supreme Court of Canada decision in R. v. Brydges, all provinces and territories offer temporary access to duty counsel through telephone in the immediate period after an accused has been arrested or detained. These services are provided to accused persons without application, and they are free of charge.

For criminal matters, duty counsel services (either Brydges telephone services or in person court services) are available in all provinces and territories. Civil duty counsel services are available in six provinces: Newoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia (NS offers family duty counsel, which is referred to as summary advice counsel), New Brunswick, Ontario, Manitoba (for child protection matters), and British Columbia; while I&R duty counsel services are available in Newfoundland and Labrador, Ontario, and British Columbia.

A majority of provinces and territories do not apply eligibility criteria for duty counsel services. Of those that do, New Brunswick applies a scope of service eligibility criteria, but not a financial eligibility critieria,Footnote 2 while Ontario applies eligibility criteria which are outlined on their website.Footnote 3 British Columbia applies eligibility criteria only to family duty counsel services.Footnote 4

Eleven jurisdictions provided data on the number of duty counsel services provided to clients in 2018-19 (Table 11). There were 1,229,291 duty counsel assists provided to legal aid clients in these jurisdictions. A total of 83% of these assists were for criminal matters, and 17% were for civil matters (including I&R).

For jurisdictions that provided data on both criminal and civil duty counsel services, Quebec and Prince Edward Island had the highest proportions of criminal duty counsel assists provided, both with 100% of duty counsel assists for criminal matters. British Columbia had the lowest proportion of criminal matter assists, with 76% criminal assists and 24% civil.

Table 11 - Duty counsel services, by type of matter, 2018-19
  Total duty counsel services
N (%)
Criminal duty counsel servicestable note 1 Provincial Statute Offences
N (%)
Civil duty counsel servicestable note 2
Total criminal duty counsel services
N (%)
Adult matters Youthtable note 3 matters Total civil duty counsel services
N (%)
I&Rtable note 4 Other civil matterstable note 5
NLp 12,896 (100) 12,363 (96) 11,848 515 - 536 (4) 3 533
PEI 777 (100) 777 (100) 777 0 0 (0) 0 (0) n/a 0 (0)
NSA 21,328 (100) 18,359 (86) 17,529 743 765 (4) 2,204 (10) n/a 2,204
NBA 23,663 (100) 22,341 (94) 21,298 1043 145 (145) 1,177 (5) n/a 1,177
QC 24,883 (100) 24,883 (100) 24,883 - 0 (0) 0 (0) n/a 0 (0)
ONA 939,099 (100) 768,504 (82) 741,556 26,948 0 (0) 170,595 (18) 2 170,593
MBA 47,587 (100) 43,762 (92) 38,763 4,999 0 (0) 3,825 (8) n/a 3,825
SKA 35,508 (100) 35,228 (99) 32,044 3,184 280 (1) - n/a -
AB - - - - - - n/a -
BCA 117,494 (100) 89,153 (76) 87,110 2,043 0 (0) 28,341 (24) 1,036 27,305
YKP 1,737 (100) 1,711 (99) 1,545 166 0 (0) 26 (1) n/a 0 (0)
NTA 4,316 (100) 3,637 (84) 3,358 279 679 (16) - n/a -
NUtable note 6 - - - - - - n/a -
CA 1,229,291 (100) 1,020,718 (83) 980,711 39,920 1,869 (0) 206,704 (17) 1,041 205,637

– Refers to data that were not available or that were not provided by the jurisdiction as reported in the Statement of Final Claim.
P – Count is by number of persons assisted.
A – Count is by number of assists – this refers to the number of times duty counsel was provided for each category of service provided for adult and youth criminal legal aid, provincial statute offences, I &R and civil legal aid.


Over 89 million dollars of expenditures on duty counsel services in 2018-19

Nationally, there were total expenditures of $89,204,640 for duty counsel services in 2018-19. The highest proportion of duty counsel expenditures were for criminal duty counsel services, at $63,755,204, or 71% of total expenditures in 2018-19. Civil duty counsel services made up 29% of expenditures. Within criminal duty counsel services, 96% of expenditures went towards adult matters (Table 12).

Table 12 - Duty counsel service expenditurestable note 1, by type of matter, 2018-19
  Total duty counsel services $ (%) Criminal duty counsel servicestable note 2 Provincial Statute Offences
$ (%)
Civil duty counsel servicestable note 3
Total criminal duty counsel services
$ (%)
Adult matters Youthtable note 4 matters Total civil duty counsel services
$ (%)
I&Rtable note 5 Other civil matterstable note 6
NL 210,755 (100) 210,755 (100) 210,755 (100) - - - n/a -
PEI 65,555 (100) 65,555 (100) 65,555 (100) 0 0 0 n/a 0
NS 2,587,863 (100) 2,214,680 (86) 2,126,610 (82) 88,070 (3) 373,183 (14) n/a 373,183 (14)
NB 1,154,273 (100) 1,052,544 (91) 1,045,373 (91) 7,171 (1) 4,093 (0) 97,636 (8) n/a 97,636 (8)
QC 998,115 (100) 998,115 (100) 998,115 (100) 0 0 0 0
ON 60,770,071 (100) 40,692,698 (67) 39,043,607 (64) 1,649,091 (3) 0 20,077,373 (33) 355 (0) 20,077,018 (33)
MB 2,685,282 (100) 2,439,745 (91) 2,160,132 (80) 279,613 (10) 0 245,537 (9) 0 245,537 (9)
SK 626,159 (100) 623,057 (100) 608,291 (97) 14,766 (2) 3102 (0) n/a
AB 10,103,485 (100) 9,030,120 (89) 8,658,977 (86) 371,143 (4) 0 1,073,365 (11) 0 1,073,365 (11)
BC 10,003,082 (100) 6,427,935 (64) 6,128,668 (61) 299,267 (3) 0 3,575,147 (36) 140,581 (10) 3,434,566 (34)
YK - - - - - - n/a -
NT - - - - - - n/a -
NUtable note 7 - - - - - - n/a -
CA 89,204,640 (100) 63,755,204 (71) 61,046,083 (96) 2,709,121 (4) 7,195 (0) 25,442,241 (29) 140,936 (1) 25,301,305 (99)

– Refers to data that were not available or that were not provided by the jurisdiction as reported in the Statement of Final Claim.


Almost three quarters of applications for legal aid services to deal with an appeal were approved

Out of the 6,626 applications for legal aid services for an appeal case, almost three quarters were approved for legal aid services (71%). For criminal matters, 63% were approved, and for civil matters more than three quarters (77%) were approved (Table 13).

Aside from Saskatchewan and Northwest Territories, where all appeal applications were approved in 2018-19, Ontario and Nova Scotia had the highest proportion of appeal cases approved for legal aid services (86% and 85%), while Newfoundland and Labrador had the lowest proportion of cases approved (42%). For criminal cases, Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia had the highest proportion of appeal cases approved (100% and 98%) and British Columbia had the lowest (26%). For civil cases, Ontario had the highest proportion of cases approved (91%), and New Brunswick had the lowest (25%) (Table 13).

Table 13 – Appealtable note 1 applications, approved and refused for legal aid services, by criminal and civil matters, 2018-19
  Total criminal and civil matters Criminal matters (adult and youth) Civil matters  
Total Approved and refused appeals N (%) Total Approved appeals N (%) Total Refused appeals N (%) Approved and refused appeals N (%) Approved appeals N (%) Refused appeals N (%) Approved and refused appeals N (%) Approved appeals N (%) Refused appeals N (%)
NL 451 (100) 189 (42) 262 (58) 224 (100) 97 (43) 127 (57) 227 (100) 92 (41) 135 (59)
PEI 5 (100) 4 (80) 1 920) 5 (100) 4 (80) 1 (20) 0 0 0
NS 60 (100) 51 (85) 9 (15) 40 (100) 39 (98) 1 (2) 20 (100) 12 (60) 8 (40)
NB 27 (100) 15 (56) 12 (44) 19 (100) 13 (68) 6 (32) 8 (100) 2 (25) 6 (75)
QC 1,016 (100) 524 (52) 492 (48) 445 (100) 251 (56) 194 (44) 571 (100) 273 (48) 298 (52)
ON 3,756 (100) 3,217 (86) 539 (14) 1,559 (100) 1,212 (78) 347 (82) 2,197 (100) 2,005 (91) 192 (9)
MB 262 (100) 167 (64) 95 (36) 160 (100) 85 (53) 75 (47) 102 (100) 82 (80) 20 (20)
SK 28 (100) 28 (100) 0 (0) 28 (100) 28 (100) 0 (0) 0 0 0
AB - - - - - - - - -
BC 1,010 (100) 486 (48) 524 (52) 418 (100) 107 (26) 311 (74) 592 (100) 379 (64) 213 (36)
YK - - - - - - - - -
NT 11 (100) 11 (100) 0 (0) 11 (100) 11 (100) 0 (0) 0 0 0
NU - - - - - - - - -
CA 6,626 (100) 4,692 (71) 1,934 (29) 2,909 (100) 1,847 (63) 1,062 (37) 3,717 (100) 2,845 (77) 872 (23)

– Refers to data that were not available or that were not provided by the jurisdiction as reported in the Statement of Final Claim.


Approximately 600 civil cases were managed under the interprovincial reciprocity agreement in 2018-19

The interprovincial reciprocity agreement refers to an agreement among legal aid plans in Canada to handle non-resident civil cases. Under the terms of the new 2018 agreement, it is no longer a requirement for an applicant to apply in their home province, applications may be made directly to the province where service is required.

Outgoing cases refer to the number of applications for civil legal aid approved by the legal aid plan of a province or territory that are forwarded to other P/T legal aid plans for service. Incoming cases refer to the number of applications approved for civil legal aid by other provincial/territorial legal aid plans which are forwarded to the legal aid plan for service and for which service has been provided.

Data from 2018-19 indicate that provinces/territories handled a total a total of 594 incoming cases and 666 outgoing cases (Table 14). Ontario had the highest number of cases incoming from another province, with 235 cases. Ontario also had the highest number of outgoing cases, with 265 cases where the service was provided by legal aid lawyers in another province or territory.

Table 14 - Incoming and outgoing civil legal aid cases processed under the interprovincial reciprocity agreement, 2018-19
 Total by jurisdiction
Incoming Outgoing
Newfoundland and Labrador 5 7
Prince Edward Island 10 6
Nova Scotia 25 33
New Brunswick 12 41
Quebec 165 165
Ontario 235 265
Manitoba 85 73
Saskatchewan - -
Alberta 24 0
British Columbia 30 74
Yukon 3 2
Northwest Territories 0 0
Nunavut 0 0
Total 594 666

The highest proportion of legal aid clients were male, and accessed criminal legal aid services

As shown in Table 15, overall, 61% of legal aid clients were male, while 39% were female. For criminal matters, the proportion of males was even higher (78%). For I&R matters, 62% of clients were male and 38% were female. However where an I&R matter relates to a principal legal aid applicant with family, only the principal applicant is counted as a client which may result in an undercount of females with I&R matters. For civil matters, a majority of clients were female (64%).

Overall, the most common age category was 18-34 (44%). This trend appears to be the same for males, females and others in all types of matters (criminal, I&R, and civil), with the exception of males in civil matters. For this group, the most common age category was 35-49 (32%). For male criminal legal aid clients, the most common age group was 18-34 (50%), followed by 35-49 (30%). The same pattern was true for female criminal legal aid clients, with the most common age group being 18-34 (53%) followed by 35-49 (29%).

For I&R legal aid, most male clients were in the 18-34 and 35-49 age groups (44% and 43%). The same was true for female clients, with 42% in the 18-34 age group, and 41% in the 35-49 age group. For civil legal aid, male clients were most often in the 35-49 and 18-34 age groups (31% and 25%); female clients were most often in the 18-34 and 35-49 age groups (40% and 33%) (Table 15).

Table 15 - Legal aid clients, by age, gendertable note 1, and type of matter, Canada, 2018-19
  Type of matter Total
Criminal I&Rtable note 2 Civil
male 17 and under 13,407 (7) 179 (1) 13,868 (22) 27,454 (10)
male 18-34 94,239 (50) 8,018 (44) 15,426 (25) 117,683 (44)
male 35-49 55,959 (30) 7,765 (43) 19,605 (31) 83,329 (31)
male 50+ 24,221 (13) 2,214 (12) 13,540 (22) 39,975 (15)
Total males 187,826 (100) 18,176 (100) 62,439 (100) 268,441 (100)
female 17 and under 4,145 (8) 148 (1) 14,122 (13) 18,415 (11)
female 18-34 26,835 (53) 4,711 (42) 44,319 (40) 75,865 (44)
female 35-49 14,780 (29) 4,558 (41) 36,943 (33) 56,281 (32)
female 50+ 5,337 (10) 1,688 (15) 16,409 (15) 23,434 (13)
Total females 51,097 (100) 11,105 (100) 111,793 (100) 173,995 (100)
other 17 and under 78 (10) 0 11 (3) 89 (8)
other 18-34 387 (48) * 171 (49) 563 (48)
other 35-49 222 (28) * 85 (24) 311 (27)
other 50+ 119 (15) * 81 (23) 202 (17)
Total other 806 (100) 11 (100) 348 (100) 1,165 (100)
Total 17 and under 17,630 (7) 327 (1) 28,001 (16) 45,958 (10)
Total 18-34 121,461 (51) 12,734 (43) 59,916 (34) 194,111 (44)
Total 35-49 70,961 (30) 12,327 (42) 56,633 (32) 139,921 (32)
Total 50+ 29,677 (12) 3,904 (13) 30,030 (17) 63,611 (14)
Canada 239,729 (100) 29,292 (100) 174,580 (100) 443,601 (100)

– Refers to data that were not available or that were not provided by the jurisdiction as reported in the Statement of Final Claim.

*cell count under 5 supressed.


More than half of Indigenous legal aid clients were males accessing criminal legal aid services

Legal aid plans from Nova Scotia, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, British Columbia, and Northwest Territories provided data on self-identified Indigenous legal aid clients. Out of a total of 47,559 Indigenous clients that self-identified in these provinces and territories in 2018-19, 71% accessed criminal legal aid (adult and youth), while 23% accessed civil legal aid. The highest proportion of clients were male adults, accessing criminal legal aid services (52%) (Table 16).

A majority of Indigenous adult and youth criminal legal aid clients were male (80%). In civil cases, there were about twice as many female Indigenous clients as male (66% versus 32%).

Table 16 – Indigenoustable note 1 legal aid clients receiving full legal represenation and summary services by gender and type of matter, 2018-19
  Total criminal and civiltable note 2 N (%) Criminal Civiltable note 4
Total Criminal adult N (%) adult youthtable note 3 Total criminal youth N (%)
male female other male female other male female other Total civil N (%)
NS 1,175 (2) 895 (3) 548 347 0 72 12 0 84 (3) 64 132 0 196 (2)
ON 17,595 (37) 12,972 (39) 9,898 3,068 6 447 208 0 655(24) 1,428 2,537 * 3,968 (36)
MB 11,428 (24) 7,909 (24) 5,835 2,043 31 594 310 0 904 (33) 929 1,673 13 2,615 (23)
SK 9,602 (20) 6,343 (19) 4,449 1,517 377 559 243 40 842 (30) 580 1,709 128 2,417 (22)
BC 6,593 (14) 4,695 (14) 3,526 1,165 * 181 68 - 249 (9) 501 1,148 - 1,649 (15)
NT 1,166 (2) 828 (2) 681 147 0 20 10 - 30 (1) 103 205 0 308 (3)
CA 47,559 (100) 33,642 (100) 24,937 8,287 418 1,873 851 40 2,764 (100) 3,605 7,404 144 11,153 (100)

– Refers to data that were not available or that were not provided by the jurisdiction as reported in the Statement of Final Claim.

*cell count under 5 supressed.

Legal aid cases for assault were the most frequent offence category, with the highest proportion of in-year expenditures for adult criminal legal aid

Table 17 provides a breakdown of criminal legal aid cases that were approved for full legal representation, and incurred expenditures in 2018-19 in addition to cases that were ongoing from previous years and incurred expenditures in 2018-19. These are broken down by general offence categories, as well as the proportion of in-year expenditures dedicated to each offence category. Note that the offence categories do not refer to specific offences under the Criminal Code, rather, they represent groupings of similar offence types.

The category ‘other offences’ made up the highest proportion of both case volume and in-year expenditures, at 27% of cases, and 22% of in-year expenditures in 2018-19. Among more specific offence categories, assault (18% of case volume and 17% of in-year expenditures) and ‘theft, break and enter, possession of stolen property’ (17% of case volume and 13% of in-year expenditures) were the most frequent types of legal aid cases.

There were a few categories of offences that made up a very small proportion of case volumes, but a comparatively a higher proportion of in-year expenditures. These included homicide, which accounted for 0.6% of cases, but 12% of in-year expenditures; sexual assault which made up 3% of case volume and 7% of expenditures, and robbery cases which each made up 2% of the case volume, but 5% of expenditures (Table 16).

Table 17 – Criminal legal aid casestable note 1 by type of offencetable note 2 and in year expenditures, adult, Canada, 2018-19
List of Offences and Appeals Total volume of cases N (%) Total in-year expenditures (fees and disbursements) Dollars (%)
Homicide 1,470 (.6) 33,217,228 (12)
Sexual Assault 6,291 (3) 17,441,898 (7)
Robbery 5,490 (2) 13,182,243 (5)
Kidnapping 663 (.3) 2,039,489 (.8)
Arson 376 (.2) 633,126 (.2)
Narcotics 20,211 (9) 28,235,719 (11)
Theft, Break & Enter, Possession of Stolen Property 41,041 (17) 33,506,032 (13)
Impaired Driving 5,959 (3) 4,825,142 (2)
Other driving offences 2,700 (1) 2,711,375 (1)
Assault 43,310 (18) 44,574,089 (17)
Breach of Probation 29,435 (13) 10,447,455 (4)
Administration of Justice 11,772 (5) 16,386,676 (6)
Proceedings under Part XX.1 Criminal Code (Mental Disorder) 1,929 (1) 358,797 (.1)
Proceedings under the Extradition Act 13 (0) 49,987 (0)
Other Offencestable note 3 63,972 (27) 58,267,694 (22)
Subtotal - Offences 234,632 (99) 265,876,950 (99)
Appeals:  
a. Crown 1,311 (.6) 291,108 (.1)
b. Eligible Person Requested 190 (.1) 1,883,812 (.7)
c. Proceedings under Part XX.1 Criminal Code (Mental Disorder) 148 (.1) 0
d. Proceedings under the Extradition Act 11 (1) 21,314 (0)
Subtotal - Appeals 1,660 (.7) 2,193,418 (.8)
Total - Criminal Legal Aid – ADULT 236,292 (100) 268,073,184 (100)

Legal aid cases for assault were the most frequent offence category, with the highest proportion of in-year expenditures for youth criminal legal aid

Table 18 provides a breakdown of current youth legal aid cases and incurred expenditures in 2018-19 in addition to cases that were ongoing and incurring expenditures but might have been approved the previous fiscal year or earlier. These are broken down by general offence categories, as well as the proportion of in-year expenditures dedicated to each offence category. Note that the offence categories do not refer to specific offences under the Criminal Code, rather, they represent groupings of similar offence types.

‘Other offences’ made up the highest proportion of case volume (39%) and the highest proportion of in-year expenditures (26%), while assault made up 18% of cases, and 19% of in-year expenditures in 2018-19. ‘Theft, break and enter, possession of stolen property’ was the next most common offence category with 14% of case volume and 12% of in-year expenditures.

There were a few categories of offences that made up a very small proportion of case volume, but a comparatively higher proportion of in-year expenditures. These included homicide, which accounted for 0.4% of cases, but 9% of in-year expenditures and sexual assault, which accounted for 5% of cases but 8% of in-year expenditures. (Table 18).

Table 18 – Criminal legal aid casestable note 1 by type of offencetable note 2 and in year expenditures, youthtable note 3, Canada, 2018-19
List of Offences and Appeals Total volume of cases N (%) Total in-year expenditures (fees and disbursements)
Dollars (%)
Homicide 107 (.4) 1,939,892 (9)
Sexual Assault 1,184 (5) 1,723,787 (8)
Assault 4,550 (18) 4,233,686 (19)
Robbery 1,532 (6) 1,584,935 (7)
Kidnapping 27 (.1) 59,592 (.3)
Arson 133 (.5) 105,578 (.5)
Narcotics 1,283 (5) 1,636,461 (7)
Theft, Break & Enter, Possession of Stolen Property 3,521 (14) 2,770,906 (12)
Impaired Driving 112 (.4) 162,973 (.7)
Other Driving Offences 81 (.3) 155,416 (.7)
Breach of Probation 1,524 (6) 572,659 (3))
Administration of Justice 1,180 (5) 1,715,241 (8)
Proceedings under Part XX.1 Criminal Code (Mental Disorder) 1 (0) 959 (0)
Proceedings under the Extradition Act 13 (.1) 7,313 (0)
Other Offencestable note 4 9,729 (39) 5,731,970 (26)
Subtotal - Offences 24,977 (99) 22,401,368 (99)
Appeals:  
a. Crown 38 (.2) 16,656 (.1)
b. Eligible Person Requested 2 (0) 7,326 (0)
c. Proceedings under Part XX.1 Criminal Code (Mental Disorder) 0 (0) 0 (0)
d. Proceedings under the Extradition Act 0 (0) 0 (0)
Subtotal 40 (.2) 23,982 (.1)
Total - Criminal Legal Aid – YOUTH 25,017 (100) 22,425,350 (100)

Over 41,000 immigration and refugee legal aid certificates were issued in 2018-19

Refugee claimants have the right, under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA), to be represented at immigration and refugee proceedings. Through the Legal Aid Program, the federal government contributes annual funding to the six provinces that provide I&R legal aid services (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Newfoundland and Labrador, Ontario, and Quebec). I&R matters refer to proceedings of persons (individuals, or principal applicants and family) involved in the immigration and refugee determination system under the provisions of IRPA. I&R legal aid covers the provision of legal advice, assistance and representation for immigration or refugee proceedings before the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, the Federal Court , or Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada officials on post-determination actions.

Table 19 shows the volume of I&R legal aid certificates as well as expenditures for I&R legal aid for 2018-19, including certificates carried over from previous fiscal years for cases that are ongoing. In 2018-19, there were 41,109 legal aid certificates issued, with 5,465Footnote 5 certificates carried over from previous fiscal years, in the provinces that reported this data, for a total of 46,574 certificates . A majority of (current and previous fiscal year) certificates were handled by private bar lawyers (70%), while 26% were handled in specialized clinics, and 3% were handled by staff lawyers. The majority of expenditures related to I&R legal aid (75%) were associated with private bar certificates.

Newfoundland and Labrador and Alberta had the highest proportion of staff lawyers working on I&R matters (100% and 57%), while British Columbia has a model with 100% private bar lawyers handling I&R legal aid. Ontario had the highest proportion of cases handled through specialized clinics (34%) (Table 19).

Table 19 - Immigration and refugee legal aid certificatestable note 1 and expenditures, by province/territory and type of lawyer, 2018-19
  Certificates issued in the fiscal year
N (%)
Expenditures for certificates issued in the fiscal year (dollars) Certificates carried over from previous fiscal year
N (%)
Expenditures for certificates issued in a previous fiscal year (dollars) Total number of certificates (previous and current fiscal year)
N (%)
Total expenditures (dollars) (%)
Alberta 
Private Bar 221 (38) 200,763 150 (53) 248,885 371 (43) 449,648 (51)
Staff Lawyer 365 (62) 132,500 133 (47) 305,205 498 (57) 437,705 (49)
Specialized Clinics - - - - -
AB totals  586 (100) 333,263 283 (100) 554,090 869 (100) 887,353 (100)
British Columbiatable note 2
Private Bar 1,351 (100) 1,190,117 885 (100) 1,342,445 2,236 (100) 2,532,562 (100)
Staff Lawyer - - - - - -
Specialized Clinics - - - -
BC totals 1,351 (100) 1,190,117 885 (100) 1,342,445 2,236 (100) 2,532,562 (100)
Manitoba 
Private Bar 602 (92) 163,061 175 (90) 195,394 777 (92) 358,455 (93)
Staff Lawyer 53 (8) 15,398 19 (10) 11,624 72 (8) 27,022 (7)
Specialized Clinics - - - - - -
MB totals 655 (100) 178,459 194 (100) 207,018 849 (100) 385,477 (100)
Newfoundland and Labrador 
Private Bar - - - - - -
Staff Lawyer 8 (100) 14,822 6 (100) - 17 (100) 14,822 (82)
Specialized Clinics - - - - - -
NL totals 8 (100) 14,822 6 (100) - 17 (100) 14,822 (100)
Ontario 
Private Bar 17,498 (62) 9,231,110 16,092,871 17,498 (62) 25,323,981 (74)
Staff Lawyer 976 (3) 4,099,369 - 976 (3) 4,099,369 (12)
Specialized Clinics 9,724 (34) 4,928,384 - 9,724 (34) 4,928,384 (14)
ON totals 28,198 (100) 18,258,863 16,092,871 28,198 (100) 34,351,734 (100)
Quebectable note 3
Private Bar 7,799 (76) 1,213,202 4,094 (100) 3,076,751 11,893 (83) 4,289,953 (78)
Staff Lawyer 32 (0) 19,667 - - 32 (0) 19,667 (0)
Specialized Clinics 2,480 (24) 1,208,057 - - 2,480 (17) 1,208,057 (22)
QC totals 10,311 (100) 2,440,926 4,094 (100) 3,076,751 14,405 (100) 5,517,677 (100)
Canada
Private Bar 27,471 (67) 11,998,253 5,304 (97) 20,956,346 32,775 (70) 32,954,599 (75)
Staff Lawyer 1,434 (3) 4,281,756 161 (3) 316,829 1,595 (3) 4,598,585 (11)
Specialized Clinics 12,204 (30) 6,136,441 0 (0) 0 12,204 (26) 6,136,441 (14)
Canada totals 41,109 (100) 22,416,450 5,465 (100) 21,273,175 46,574 (0) 43,689,625 (100)

– Refers to data that were not available or that were not provided by the jurisdiction as reported in the Statement of Final Claim.

Specialized Courts

Specialized or problem-solving courts focus on a particular type of offence or offender. They typically involve an interdisciplinary team that is focused on addressing the underlying causes of offending.Footnote 6 The following section provides information on the specialized courts operating in Canada. Table 20 provides an overview of the service delivery models available at specialized courts across Canada.

Mental Health/Wellness/Community Courts

Mental health courts are designed to assist accused persons who have mental health issues. This typically involves specially trained personnel and processes that take into consideration the difficulties that a person with mental health issues may encounter in the criminal justice process.

Wellness/community courts offer integrated supports and services designed to address the problems associated with repeat offenders struggling to reintegrate into society.

There are 11 jurisdictions that operate mental health/wellness/community courts. This includes Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, Northwest Territories and Yukon.

Drug Treatment Courts

Drug treatment courts aim to reduce crime committed as a result of drug dependency through court-monitored treatment and community service support for non-violent offenders with drug addictions. Drug treatment courts currently operate in Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia.

First Nations/Gladue Courts

First Nations/Gladue courts offer restorative justice and traditional approaches for sentencing Indigenous offenders. These courts currently operate in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia.

Youth Courts

Youth between the ages of 12 to 17 who are accused of a crime have their matters heard in youth court, which is a separate court division. Youth courts currently operate in every province and territory in Canada.

Family/Domestic Violence Courts

Family/domestic violence courts are designed to handle cases of domestic/family violence by offering an integrated, collaborative approach focusing on supporting victims, increasing offender responsibility, and providing early intervention. These courts currently operate in Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Northwest Territories.

Table 20 – Specialized courts by province/territory and type of legal aid service delivery, 2018-19
NL PEI NS NB QC ON MB SK AB BC YK NT NUtable note 1
Mental Health/Wellness Community Court
Full Legal Representation Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N Y n/a
Duty Counsel Services Y N N Y N Y Y Y Y Y n/a
Expanded Duty Counsel N N Y N Y Y N Y Y n/a
Drug Treatment Court
Full Legal Representation Y N Y N Y Y Y Y Y N N n/a
Duty Counsel Services Y N N N N Y Y Y Y N n/a
Expanded Duty Counsel N N N N Y Y N N N n/a
First Nations/Gladue Court
Full Legal Representation N N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N n/a
Duty Counsel Services N N N Y N Y Y Y Y N n/a
Expanded Duty Counsel N N Y Y N Y Y N N N n/a
Youth Court
Full Legal Representation N N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N Y n/a
Duty Counsel Services N N Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y n/a
Expanded Duty Counsel N N Y Y N Y Y N N Y n/a
Domestic Violence Court
Full Legal Representation N N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N Y n/a
Duty Counsel Services N N Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y n/a
Expanded Duty Counsel N N Y N Y Y N N Y n/a
Unified Family Court
Full Legal Representation N N Y N Y Y Y Y Y N N n/a
Duty Counsel Services Y N Y N N Y Y Y N N n/a
Expanded Duty Counsel N N N N Y Y N N N n/a

Table 21 – Legal aid program innovations

Legal aid plans provided information on innovative practices or programs that were implemented for criminal legal aid in 2018-19. An "innovation" refers to a new or improved way of delivering criminal legal aid that targets vulnerable populations, modernizes processes using technology, enhances business practices, and/or supports improved data collection and performance measurement.

Prince Edward Island
Name of Innovation/Program Objective(s) Timeline Expected/Actual Outcome(s) Performance Measure(s) Beneficiaries
1. Legal Aid Record Management Application (LARMA) Development of an application to replace PEILA's manual processes for program administration and records management. Primary software development has been completed. Work is continuing on operational issues. The goal of replacing the manual data collection system has not been fully reached, but is getting closer. More efficient file tracking and case management. Program is intended to capture the aggregate data required for this Claim and other statistical reporting requirements. To be developed. Program management. Government and public information users.
2. Records Information Management (RIM) RIM is a major cross government initiative to structure and improve records management and retention in the Province. Primary restructuring and development phase: 2017-2020. Improved framework for organization of administrative records and approved schedules for retention. As determined by the Province. PEILA program management. More cost effective off-site storage of records will better facilitate retrieval, preservation, and destruction.
Nova Scotia
Name of Innovation/Program Objective(s) Timeline Expected/Actual Outcome(s) Performance Measure(s) Beneficiaries
1. Updated Brydges Manual including Quick Reference Guide and Modular Training Providing a user friendly manual and quick reference guide to assist duty counsel lawyers providing Brydges services. Completed in 2018/19 Improved duty counsel service. N/A Staff lawyers and private lawyers providing duty counsel services.
2. Development of videos for public legal information on criminal law issues. To provide public legal information on criminal law issues for the public. Completed in 2018/19 Citizens will be more informed on specific criminal law issues. Tracking of number of views of the specific videos. Citizens and criminal clients.
3. Tracking of court support workers time in the Domestic Violence Court To track the work of non-lawyers involved in the criminal court system. Throughout 2018/19 We can measure the value of the time spent by non-lawyers involved in assisting clients. Hours of case time provided by court support workers. Legal Aid plan and Province. Shows the value of work done by non-lawyers.
4. New server/storage drive To increase storage to enable move to e-disclosure. Equipment purchased in 2018/19 Increased storage is now available which enables us to move forward with e-disclosure. Services delivered in a more efficient way. Less paper required/cost savings. Staff lawyers, court support workers and clients.
5. Expanded into new wellness and mental health courts. To provide responsive and appropriate service to clients. Improve justice system. Throughout 2018/19 Clients have better outcomes in wellness and mental health courts. Number of clients assisted in wellness and mental health courts. Clients and other justice partners. The criminal justice system.
6. Cultural competency training To improve cultural competency of staff. Throughout 2018/19 Improved culturally competent services. N/A Clients from marginalized communities.
New Brunswick
Name of Innovation/Program Objective(s) Timeline Expected/Actual Outcome(s) Performance Measure(s) Beneficiaries
1. Strategic Plan Focus on 3 strategic pillars: Client Focus, Service Excellence, and Organizational Sustainability. 2018-19 to 2020-21 website All stakeholders
2. Publish taxation guidelines for private bar lawyers. Clarify billing requirements, rates for various disbursements, supporting documentation required, etc. Development: 2018-19; to be implemented in 2019-20. Reduce private bar invoices submitted with errors. N/A Private Bar
3. Electronic Funds Transfer - Direct Deposit Direct deposit payment processing for staff, private bar and recurring supplier invoices. Development: 2018-19; phased implementation May-June 2019. More efficient payment of expenses, eliminate the costly production and mailing of cheques, and reduce the time between submission of invoices and payment. N/A Staff, private bar, and recurring suppliers (ie. office supplies, rent).
4. Criminal Duty Counsel Statistics project Improve availability of criminal duty counsel service statistics provided by staff lawyers to management for strategic and budgetary decisions. Development: 2018-19; implemented in 2019-20. Average cycle time from date service provided to data entry in CMS reduced from 65 days to 25 days. Cycle time. Staff lawyers, management
Average data entry time per appearance reduced from 3.1 minutes to 47 seconds. Data entry time. Administrative staff
5. Review/update website content and organization of information Reconfigure website on a newer platform with more functionality to meet bilingual requirements; and update content. Development started in 2018-19; target implementation date is 2019-20. Newer platform will have more functionality to make content updates easier. N/A Staff responsible for updates.
Updated content and organization of information. N/A All visitors to website.
6. Laptops for lawyers Replace desktop computers with laptops that lawyers can take to court. Implemented 2018-19. Facilitate trial services and scheduling. N/A Staff lawyers, clients.
7. Sharing of research and documents Update and maintain existing folders on the shared drive. Discussions started in 2018-19; revised process to be implemented in 2019-20. Central location for research and precedents. N/A Staff lawyers
Quebec
Name of Innovation/Program Objective(s) Timeline Expected/Actual Outcome(s) Performance Measure(s) Beneficiaries
1. Mental Health Justice Accompaniment Program. PAJ- SM
  • Avoid the use of imprisonment for people with mental health problems by promoting supervision and follow-up in the community.
  • Ensure continuous monitoring of these individuals to reduce the risk of recidivism.
  • To improve the judicial treatment of this type of offender in the municipal court of the City of Montréal.
  • Allow for more uniform and consistent treatment of court cases.
  • Reduce the time spent in custody for forensic purposes, for the purpose of pre-trial detention.
  • Launched in 2008
  • Breaking the cycle of revolving doors: mental illness, crime, imprisonment, health care, release.
  • To ensure the protection of the public by providing appropriate care for persons suffering from mental disorders with the aim of their recovery and control of their illness.
  • To ensure an effective and rapid response to the treatment needs of people with mental disorders.
  • Study by academics on the implementation of the program.
  • Number of files processed under this program.
  • Accused persons with mental health problems.
  • For offences punishable on summary conviction or, exceptionally, by indictment.
2. Court of Quebec Drug Treatment Program
  • To prevent and reduce crime due to alcohol and drug dependency by providing structured, judicially supervised, pre- sentencing treatment for offenders with substance abuse problems.
  • Launched on December 10, 2012.
  • All lawyers in the Criminal Legal Aid office can represent clients.
  • Breaking the cycle of addiction and associated crime.
  • Provides sustainable social and community reintegration and rehabilitation.
  • Ensures better community safety.
  • Number of files processed under this program.
  • Implementation study.
  • Impact study to come.
  • Accused persons before the Court of Quebec with alcohol or drug problems.
  • All offences are eligible for the program as long as the Director of Criminal and Penal Prosecutions consents and the sentence contemplated is within the range of sentences that allow for conditional sentences or other non- custodial
  • measures.
3. Laval Mental Health Intervention Protocol. PIL-SM
  • Reduce the period spent in custody for forensic and pre-trial detention.
  • Reduce the risk of deterioration in people's mental state.
  • Avoid courtroom workflows.
  • Save costs.
  • Protecting public safety.
  • Launched in September 2017.
  • All lawyers in the Laval Legal Aid Office who practice criminal law can represent clients.
  • Changing the usual intervention protocols of the various stakeholders in order to promote the rapid and effective management of people with mental health problems.
  • Reduce the stigma of mental health associated with entering the justice system.
  • Number of files processed under this protocol.
  • Impact research project under negotiation.
  • Accused persons in the district of Laval with mental health problems, disabilities or autism spectrum disorders.
4. Homeless justice accompaniment program at the Court. PAJIC
  • To help people who have already experienced or are experiencing homelessness and who are in the process of reintegrating into society to manage their legal situation.
  • Pilot project February 2009.
  • Launched in July 2011.
  • All lawyers of the Bureau d'aide juridique criminel et pénal practicing at the Municipal Court of the City of Montreal can represent clients.
  • On a voluntary basis, an accused can integrate their statements of offence and criminal records by highlighting steps towards social reintegration.
  • Number of files processed under this program.
  • Homeless people.
  • For violations of municipal by-laws or Quebec laws drawn up in accordance with the provisions of the Code of Penal Procedure of Quebec and certain criminal offences.
5. Court Accompaniment Program - Elder Abuse. PAJMA
  • Eligibility is automatic: program staff meets with the victim the first time he or she appears in Court.
  • The Centre d'aide aux victimes d'actes criminels (CAVAC) can offer support to victims during the judicial process (explanations, listening, information, help in preparing testimony and accompaniment in court).
  • Program staff take into account the victim's requests.
  • All lawyers of the Bureau d'aide juridique criminel et pénal practicing at the Municipal Court of the City of Montreal can represent clients.
  • The main goal is to stop wrongdoing.
  • Number of files processed under this program.
  • For all persons called to testify in a case at the Municipal Court of the City of Montreal.
6. EVE Programme
  • For female offenders.
  • Find an alternative to conviction and imprisonment.
  • Since the 1980s.
  • All lawyers of the Bureau d'aide juridique criminel et pénal practicing at the Municipal Court of the City of Montreal can represent clients.
  • On a voluntary basis.
  • Participation in group sessions and follow-ups to better understand the reasons for the act.
  • Number of files processed under this program.
  • For economic offences, shoplifting, employer theft, fraud, cheque forgery.
7. Examinations for discovery
  • Reduce the number of cases where the assistance of a hearing judge is required.
  • Launched in March 2017
  • Reduce delays in hearing trials.
  • Narrow the legal issues of the preliminary inquiry.
  • Allow targeted questioning on its issues.
  • Number of files processed under this program.
  • Accused persons.
8. Processing the application for legal aid by videoconference
  • Reduce the processing of legal aid applications for beneficiaries.
  • Launch planned for May 2017
  • To help reduce the length of time it takes to hear trials.
  • Make decisions on eligibility for legal aid as soon as possible.
  • Number of requests handled by videoconference.
  • Deadline for issuing private practice legal aid mandates.
  • Inmates in the Bordeaux and Rivière-des- Prairies detention facilities.
9. IMPAC Project (Multisectoral Intervention Municipal Court Accompaniment Programs)
  • Increase the feeling of security and promote an attractive living environment.
  • Reduce recidivism.
  • To promote the settlement of debts without recourse to imprisonment while facilitating the return to action.
  • Implement solutions that are better adapted and sustainable to the situation of the targeted clienteles.
  • Promoting access to justice.
  • Improve the handling of this type of case at the Quebec City Municipal Court.
  • Adapt judicial treatment and promote supervision and continuous monitoring in the community as a means of reintegration.
  • Since 2013-
  • 2014
  • Lawyers from the Bureau d'aide juridique criminel et pénal practicing in the Quebec City Municipal Court can represent.
  • Implementing alternative methods of processing cases at different stages of the judicial trajectory in order to achieve community- based justice.
  • Addressing the intrinsic causes of crime in order to provide sustainable solutions.
  • Make the community a partner in solving the problem.
  • Involve all stakeholders in the justice system so that together they can provide sustainable solutions rather than just traditional sentencing.
  • Number of files processed under this program.
  • Accused persons before the Quebec City municipal court with mental health problems, intellectual disabilities, drug addiction and homeless persons.
10. Alternative Measures Project
  • Increasing the involvement of victims and, where possible, making it easier for them to obtain fair compensation for the damage suffered.
  • Enable the prosecutor and all judicial actors to act together at all stages of the use of alternative measures.
  • Deal with alleged offences in a fair, independent, impartial, open and transparent manner, respecting the rights of both the victims and accused.
  • To encourage those who accept responsibility to take an active role in repairing the harm done and to address problems that may have contributed to their coming into conflict with the law
  • .To encourage the social commitment of these people by mobilizing the resources and aid available in their region.
  • To ensure that the terms and conditions of alternative measures are fair, proportionate and appropriate to the alleged offences.
  • September 1, 2017 to March 31, 2019 in Sherbrooke, Saguenay and Joliette.
  • As of September 1, 2019 in 18 of the 36 judicial districts in Quebec. All districts by December 2021.
  • Faster accountability of the accused through a genuine awareness of the consequences of their actions and a sincere desire to become an asset to society.
  • Number of files processed under this program.
  • Accused persons before the Court of Quebec and for certain offences.
11. Alternative Measures Program for Adults in Aboriginal Communities
  • Foster greater involvement of Aboriginal communities in the administration of justice in their communities.
  • Enable communities to re-establish the traditional practices of intervention required for their members.
  • Give communities greater responsibility for the conduct of their members in conflict with the law.
  • Provide victims with the
  • opportunity to present their views and to participate, if they so wish, in a reparation and reconciliation process.
  • Provide solutions that will encourage community members to : - Accept responsibility for their conduct; - Take an active role in repairing the wrongs they have caused;
  • - Address problems that may have contributed to their coming into conflict with the law.
  • Since 2001 revised in 2015
  • Provides sustainable social and community reintegration and rehabilitation.
  • Number of files processed.
  • Exclusively for the Aboriginal population charged with certain offences.
Ontario
Name of Innovation/Program Objective(s) Timeline Expected/Actual Outcome(s) Performance Measure(s) Beneficiaries
1. LAO Bail Strategy: LAO Bail Project A multi-stakeholder initiative to improve bail court efficiency and outcomes, and address issues for clients in remand custody. Ten new Duty Counsel Bail Coordinators (BCs) work alongside 10 Bail Vettor Crowns in high-volume bail courts to streamline bail by facilitating discussions of pre-trial release and early resolutions. Six new Institutional Duty Counsel (IDCs) work in six provincial correctional institutions to address client issues and liaise with court duty counsel and external stakeholders, with the goal of filling service gaps and making each court appearance meaningful. Duty Counsel Bail Coordinators and Institutional Duty Counsel in place as of spring 2017. The positions were made permanent in 2018. Data collection and reporting are in place. N/A Anticipated benefits are: improved client service; improved stakeholder relations; reductions in delay and workflow improvements. All Bail Strategy sites (ten courts and six jails) use the electronic interview worksheet to capture client data, streamline client service, and capture outcomes. The strategy has improved relations with the private bar, and improved communications and relations with Crowns and institutions. In some locations, all scheduled bail hearings are being dealt with on the same day, as opposed to being routinely adjourned. When clients refuse to go to court, IDC are able to get instructions for them so their next court appearance is not wasted. IDC also facilitate efficient certificate issuance and build relationships of trust with vulnerable mental health clients. Many courts have noticed fewer delays and more efficient use of court time, addressing R. v. Jordan concerns. Clients, including vulnerable mental health clients and Indigenous and racialized clients who are over-represented in corrections inlcuding in the remand population. Courts and institutions, through reductions in delay and adjournments, and reduced pressure related to high numbers of persons in remand custody.
2. LAO Bail Strategy: Bail Advocacy and Bail Review Initiatives The Bail Strategy supports reduction of the remand population by reducing bail system delay as well as by encouraging more appropriate bail releases in cases where public safety is not at risk, through correct application of the “ladder principle” of bail law, which states that a more onerous form of release should not be ordered unless the Crown shows why a less onerous form is inappropriate. The strategy addresses bail and remand issues by supporting high quality bail advocacy and facilitating access to quick bail reviews, to tackle over-reliance on sureties and overly-restrictive bail conditions.
  1. Ongoing: development of supports and resources for counsel conducting bail hearings, after R. v. Antic (lunch and learn sessions, standard bail court submissions, bail book with leading cases);
  2. Beginning spring 2017, a two year pilot project: 1000 Finch (Toronto) Duty Counsel Best Practices Bail Court, including a focus on quick bail reviews by duty counsel;
  3. Effective summer 2015, expanded certificate authorizations for second bail hearings, bail variations, and bail reviews by private bar counsel;
  4. improved access to bail review authorizations (effective fall 2018).
Positive results at the 1000 Finch pilot site, including successful duty counsel bail reviews, have led LAO to commit to developing a framework for duty counsel across the province to conduct bail reviews for appropriate cases. N/A Clients, through fairer bail outcomes. Justice system, through an anticipated reduction in administration of justice charges related to unrealistic bail conditions, and a reduction in justice system delay. Correctional system, through an anticipated reduction in remand custody.
3. School-to-Prison Pipeline Education Grant Provide funding to Black-led and Black-focussed community-based organizations to deliver legal aid services to Black students who are facing suspension or expulsion.
  • In 2017, two $100,000 grants were awarded to TAIBU Community Health Centre in Scarborough and Somali Centre for Family Services (SCFS) in Ottawa.
  • Implementation began shortly thereafter.
  • In January 2019 LAO renewed funding for TAIBU due to high success of the program but did not renew funding for SCFS.
  • The program at TAIBU ongoing, with the funding agreement scheduled to conclude on March 2020.
Reduce the number of Black students who are suspended and expelled from school. Help ensure that these students do not enter the criminal justice system.
  • TAIBU (in partnership with Rexdale CHC) has provided 169 services with $75,132 of the $100,000 provided.
  • This resulted in withdrawn suspensions, shortened suspensions, students not being expelled, and students being expelled from the school only (as opposed to all schools in the school board) in 81 instances. The cost per service is thus approximately $444.56.
  • SCFS, on the other hand, provided 73 services with $98,204.68 of the $100,000 provided. This resulted in withdrawn suspensions, shortened suspensions, and students not being expelled in 48 instances. The cost per service is thus approximately $1,345.26.
  • SCFS attributes their failure to deliver legal aid services to 100 students to the fact it took several months to establish and promote the program and to build relationships with the local school boards.
Clients, justice and community partners:
• initiative helps address systemic issue of overrepresentation of Black youth in suspension and expulsion proceedings;
• studies have shown that suspension and expulsion from school are significant predictors of future engagement with the criminal justice system;
• by basing legal services in community-based organizations, clients are able to receive wraparound services;
• strengthened relationship between LAO and members of Ontario's Black communities.
4. Discretionary Expanded Legal Eligibility Certificates for Vulnerable Clients Not Facing Incarceration

Discretionary access to an expanded legal eligibility certificate for full representation for the following types of cases regardless of the fact that the accused is not likely facing incarceration:

  1. the case merits a trial and the accused is a member of a vulnerable client group (someone who self-identifies as First Nation, Métis or Inuit; someone experiencing domestic abuse; someone with mental health issues; or someone who self-identifies as a member of a racialized community) ;
  2. the accused is a domestic violence survivor without a criminal record and has been charged with assault against their abusive partner while defending themselves and where the accused
    1. self-identifies as First Nation, Métis or Inuit or
    2. also has a continuing family matter with LAO or
    3. has an ongoing refugee status claim.
Introduced December 2016. Under-utilization of these certificates to date has prompted internal messaging to increase awareness of when it is appropriate to issue them. Address over-representation of Indigenous and racialized persons in the criminal justice system. Support vulnerable clients including those with mental health issues and those experiencing domestic violence. Assist vulnerable clients with meritorious cases to avoid a criminal record. Between August 20, 2018 to March 31, 2019 LAO issued 130 certificates in this catergory. Clients and justice system: vulnerable clients who meet the criteria may be able to avoid a criminal record; early intervention to avoid a criminal record may help clients to avoid future interaction with the justice system; legal assistance for meritorious cases can reduce self-representation, thus avoiding justice system delay.
5.Application Review and Access Improvements: In-Custody and Out-of-Custody In-custody application initiatives: Objective is to avoid instances where an accused making an appearance is returned to jail for the sole purpose of completing their legal aid application, where a bail or sentencing hearing is otherwise ready to proceed. The process does not guarantee a certificate, only an assessment of eligibility. LAO is also conducting a full province-wide assessment of all certificate application processes and is in the process of developing a client digital service channel to enable self-access and seamless service delivery online. Adding digital service channels to the overall service model will significantly expand access, improve client experience and gain efficiencies. Individual initiatives related to in-custody applications in progress beginning in 2017-2018 (Toronto South Detention Centre, where counsel may make certificate applications for in-custody clients by submitting an application form) and continuing in 2018-2019. Same-day in-custody assessments, piloted in Ottawa since August 2018, will be rolled out province wide in 2018-2019.

LAO introduced an additional method to expedite the application process for in custody clients by allow lawyers to make same-day legal aid applications for clients who are in custody and in court from October 2018 to March 2019.
Goals for in-custody application review and improvements are to: expedite service; simplify processes and reduce steps where possible; coordinate in-custody applications across service channels (by phone using the dedicated inmate phone line; by video; in person at court); assist vulnerable clients. Shorter application times, fewer times for clients to contact LAO and faster decision on certificate assessments for clients and counsel In-custody assessments: Clients; courts, and justice system. Clients, and particularly those from vulnerable groups facing additional barriers, receive access to legal assistance earlier; fewer adjournments as a result. Ensures that no accused person will have to be remanded in to custody for the sole reason of making a legal aid application.
6. Service Integration - Duty Counsel Worksheet Deploy and continue to improve online worksheet to capture bring-forward and service information about clients to improve client service, improve record-keeping and better understand (through enhanced reporting) services delivered. Obtain better data and understanding of issues related to bail and delay in criminal courts. Deployment was completed in January 2018. System stabilization and optimization throughout June 2018. Worksheet has been updated to include fields to identify reasons for adjournments, and tracking of bail conditions. As of March 2017, the system had approximately 100 users in 20 locations. As of December 2017, the system was in place at 121 criminal court locations.
  • Have system available at all court sites. Target is to have all duty counsel services recorded through the system.
Clients: improved services and record-keeping. Justice system partners: more accurate records; reduced appearances; more accurate reports resulting in better allocation of scarce resources.
7. Embedded Counsel Programs:

Justice In Time and C – Court Project

Hamilton Legal Outreach
  • Provision of legal services to clients with complex mental health and addiction needs, and intersecting legal challenges including in criminal and quasi-criminal law, through a community partnership "embedded counsel" model. In Toronto the Justice In Time project places a legal aid staff lawyer in a mental health multiservice agency who provides summary legal advice and connects clients to legal aid services and makes referrals. The lawyer also provides representation for clients with POA matters. The program provides public legal education and works for justice reform in areas of law that impact their client.
  • The Hamilton Legal Outreach program is a partnership between the Hamilton Community Legal Clinic and LAO where clinic and LAO staff lawyers attend community service sites to provide summary legal advice and referral services for clients with mental health and poverty needs. Sites include a doctor’s office affiliated with McMaster University’s medical school, a psychiatric crisis centre, aboriginal health centre, youth shelter and a food bank. A social worker from the legal clinic provides warm referrals and further assistance to clients with acute mental health needs.
  • Justice In Time was introduced in 2016 as a two year project and is ongoing.
  • Hamilton Legal Outreach commenced in 2015 and is ongoing.
  • Improving legal outcomes for persons with mental health issues and assist those persons and their support workers with navigating the justice system and accessing legal aid services.
  • Provide clients and community service partners with legal information relevant to persons with mental health needs as well as information about legal aid services.
  • Both programs regularly survey clients and community service partners as well as track key performance metrics and produce regular reports outlining the program performance.
  • Performance measures from clients and community service partners from both programs indicate that embedded counsel programs have been a success.
Clients with mental health issues (able to receive community-based support for their intersecting needs earlier in the process); justice system partners (support provided to high-needs clients supports avoidance of entanglement or re-entanglement with the criminal justice system); health care and community services providers.
8. Project Rosemary Project Rosemary is the name given to LAO's program to collect and analyze information about the race of applicants and clients of legal aid to support evidence-based service planning. Developed Race-Based Question and implementation of technical aspects of Project Rosemary (September and December 2017). Developed and delivered training to LAO Staff (January to April 2018). Data collection began April 1, 2018 as planned.

This is an ongoing initiative.

Data collection began April 1, 2018.

Despite having launched Project Rosemary for only one year, LAO staff have managed to achieve an overall compliance rate of 87% for certificate applications. This is an increase from the Q3 compliance rate of 82%. The overall compliance rate has increased in each quarter. The CLSC has managed to achieve 93% compliance. This is an increase from the Q3 compliance rate of 90%.

In instances where an SI form was created:

  • Non-CLSC (i.e. district) staff achieved 74% compliance. This is an increase from the Q3 compliance rate of 67%. LAO will need to follow up with the districts to see what supports if any are required to further increase compliance.
  • Criminal duty counsel recorded a response to the RBQ for 84% of clients. This is an increase from the Q3 compliance.
  • Criminal duty counsel provided an explanation for why the question was not asked the other 16% of the time. This is an improvement of 6%.

As a result of the RBQ LAO has obtained a better picture of our clients:

  • Approximately 32 % of all LAO certificates are issued to clients who self-identify as racialized (this does not include those who self-identify as Indigenous.)
  • Although only 4.7 % of the population of Ontario identify as Black, approximately 17% of all LAO certificate clients identify as Black. This appears to be consistent with the percentage of Blacks who fall into Ontario’s low income population (18%).
  • Approximately 14% of LAO criminal certificates clients identify as Black, while 9.5% of Family law certificate clients identify as Black.
Race-Based Question (RBQ) to be asked and answer to be recorded
(including “chose not to answer”) 95% of the time. Answers (including “prefer not to self-identify my
race”) to be gathered for 110,000 people per year.

Clients and justice system will benefit, as project enables LAO to:

  • verify, monitor, measure and address gaps, trends, progress and perceptions;
  • proactively identify opportunities for improvement and growth;
  • improve the quality of decision-making, service delivery, and programming;
  • enhance perceptions of being progressive leaders in their sector or industry;
  • achieve organizational goals and strategic objectives .
9. Aboriginal Self Identification Question (ASIQ) Strengthen and expand LAO's ability to collect data on services to Indigenous clients, including by expanding data collection beyond certificate services to include duty counsel services. LAO rolled out Indigenous Self Identification Training over June 2017 to all staff to assist them in asking clients whether they self-identify as First Nation, Métis or Inuit and to gain a better understanding of the complexities of Identity. The Service Integration Duty Counsel Worksheet is being used by duty counsel to track data. The ASIQ was reconfigured in December 2017 to improve the way in which information is collected and recorded.
This is an ongoing initiative.
Training completed by all staff. Service Integration worksheet is being used by duty counsel. Have data collected by duty counsel using the Service Integration worksheet; improved compliance by duty counsel using the Aboriginal Self Identification question Clients, justice system partners. LAO better able to develop and customize services and programs to serve Indigenous clients and better able to meet the goals of its Aboriginal Justice Strategy.
10. Expanded Access to Gladue Services and Improved Local Access for Indigenous Clients Continue to support the goals of LAO's Aboriginal Justice Strategy and meet the needs of Indigenous Clients. Continue to sustain expanded Gladue services province wide and introduce new place-based services that meet the needs of communities. LAO continues to provide funding to Aboriginal Legal Services, Grand Council Treaty #3 and Nishnawbe-Aski Legal Services Corporation to provide Gladue Report writing services; LAO has established duty counsel services at both the Ottawa and Cayuga newly launched Indigenous Peoples Court; supported community ownership by transferring criminal and family legal advice services to Six Nations of the Grand River`s Justice Program to oversee and manage; piloted an exemption at Six Nations to the requirement of prior approval for lawyers providing advice services to acknowledge certificates. Availability of Gladue report writing services province-wide. Strengthening of local and place-based services that respect the needs of communities. Clients; justice system partners; stronger relationships between LAO and Indigenous communities.
Manitoba
Name of Innovation/Program Objective(s) Timeline Expected/Actual Outcome(s) Performance Measure(s) Beneficiaries
1. Weekend Bail Project In conjunction with Manitoba Justice, this project seeks to reduce and avoid unnecessary delay of matters appearing on bail docket. The new process should be more efficient than the old process. Effective May 2018 Results demonstrate that a large volume of
matters are now assisted by weekend duty counsel—reducing delay and resulting in lower volumes of bails in Winnipeg during the week.
Reduction of time to release / time to disposition. Clients, courts, correctional centres, LAM and private bar
2. Pre-Approval of Out-of-Custody Matters To reduce delay and the number of unrepresented accused. To reduce instances of accused persons failing to appear for court and/or failing to comply with court orders. Effective June, 2018 Clients have their eligibility assessed well in advance of their first appearance date; staff counsel can provide applicants with advice and assistance well in advance of their first appearance date. better representation resulting in fewer changes of counsel and better client/counsel relationships; faster disposition of cases. Clients, LAM, Stakeholders
3. Staff Criminal Youth Defence Office Reorganization (Winnipeg) To provide enhanced representation to young people through a team of skilled lawyers with specific knowledge of the YCJA by combining duty counsel services with a full service criminal defence office. Effective September 2018 Enhancing quality of service, cost-effectiveness and productivity. Better representation resulting in fewer changes of counsel and better client/counsel relationships. Clients, LAM, Stakeholders
4. Expanded Criminal Duty Counsel To increase access to expanded duty counsel in un-serviced locations. As resources permit Provide accused with advice about diversion, restorative justice and early disposition options that may be available. Wider availability of expanded duty counsel services in rural and remote Manitoba. Clients, courts
5. Expanded Duty Counsel for Child Protection Matters To increase access to advice regarding child protection issues. As resources permit Provide parents and families with advice regarding child protection issues. Wider availability of expanded duty counsel services in rural and remote Manitoba. Clients, courts
6. Domestic Violence Project To manage the costs associated with increasing volumes. Effective June, 2018 Matters are diverted at first instance to available staff lawyers; utilize spare capacity of staff lawyers. Reduction of private bar expenditures; increase in 'billable' hours for staff. Clients, courts, LAM
7. Journey to Reconciliation – education and active participation Provide all staff with tools to better service this group of clients through cultural competency training including legacy of residential schools and 60's scoop in accordance with TRC recommendations 27 & 28. On-going Continued offering of educational training workshops for all staff members; active participation in conferences, events, inquiries relevant to Indigenous peoples. Clients receive better representation resulting in fewer changes of counsel, higher quality of service, better client/counsel relationships; increase the number of opportunities available to participate in Indigenous-led justice innovations. More opportunities for addressing systemic discrimination. Clients, staff, justice stakeholders
Saskatchewan
Name of Innovation/Program Objective(s) Timeline Expected/Actual Outcome(s) Performance Measure(s) Beneficiaries
1. Telephone Application Center expansion to other areas of the province Increase access to telephone applications for clients. Launched October 1, 2018 ~1000 calls per month to the Application Center. Calls answered within 2.5 minutes. Applicants; support staff in Legal Aid who used to do this work.
2. Conducting written annual performance evaluations of staff lawyers To provide feedback on quality and timeliness of legal aid services of staff lawyers. To begin sometime during the 2019/20 fiscal period A program fostering best practices and efficiency in the performance of staff lawyers. Conduct reviews of staff lawyers against identified practice standards. Applicants and staff by promoting a supportive culture of professional engagement.
3. Expansion of Sunday remand work and weekday Rapid Remand Resolution to other urban centres Reduce the amount of time spend on remand. The programs began in prior fiscal periods and is being evaluated. It is hoped to expand the program to other urban centres in 2019/20. Reduction in remand. Number of remand days. Clients
Alberta
Name of Innovation/Program Objective(s) Timeline Expected/Actual Outcome(s) Performance Measure(s) Beneficiaries
1. Roster and staff training initiatives
  • Continuing education
  • Enhanced relationships
  • Ongoing
  • Improved roster and staff engagement.
 
  • roster and staff
  • clients
2. Justice of the Peace bail services
  • custodial representation at bail hearings
  • Ongoing
  • Timely representation for bail.
 
  • clients
British Columbia
Name of Innovation/Program Objective(s) Timeline Expected/Actual Outcome(s) Performance Measure(s) Beneficiaries
1. Expanded Criminal Duty Counsel Increase early resolution of cases; Increase the scope of recipients of criminal legal aid services; reduce the number of court appearances, increase continuity of service for clients. Began in 2015 as a three-year pilot and became permanent at one location in 2018/19. LSS continues to work with Court Services to find court space for additional locations. Independent evaluations found evidence of early resolution of cases, reduced court appearances, and expansion of legal aid service for clients not otherwise eligible for legal representation, and increased continuity for clients time to resolution, # of appearances, volume of clients (total); volume of eligible clients not eligible for full representation services; proportion of resolutions achieved All clients facing a criminal matter in the program court location, but in particular those clients with matters that can be resolved without trial and those not eligible for full representation services but eligible for this service; judges, crown, court services in the program locations, due to increased efficiencies; complementary justice system initiatives with similar aims.
2. Criminal Early Resolution Contract (CERC) In 2018/19 LSS developed a limited criminal representation contract to help clients with cases appropriate for resolution within 90 days and before trial dates are set, following the same expanded coverage and financial eligibility criteria as for expanded criminal duty counsel ($1000 per month above the standard financial eligibility threshold and not facing a risk of jail). Objectives for this service are also similar to expanded criminal duty counsel: Increase early resolution of cases; Increase the scope of recipients of criminal legal aid services; reduce the number of court appearances, increase continuity of service for clients who would only have been eligibility for duty counsel previously. Launched in April 2019 and is intended to be ongoing. LSS expects the following outcomes: Fewer court appearances for CERC cases than baseline, earlier resolution for CERC cases so clients can get out of the justice system; elimination of unnecessary court attendance for witnesses and victims of crime; expansion of legal aid to clients otherwise not eligible legal representation; increased continuity of service for CERC clients. LSS anticipates it will use similar performance measures as used for Expanded Criminal Duty Counsel: time to resolution, # of court appearances, volume of clients; proportion of resolutions achieved. Other measures may be developed as service monitored and early results are observed. Criminal clients across BC with matters that can be resolved without trial who are not eligible for full representation services but eligible for this service; judges, crown, court services across BC due to increased efficiencies; complementary justice system initiatives with similar aims.
Yukon
Name of Innovation/Program Objective(s) Timeline Expected/Actual Outcome(s) Performance Measure(s) Beneficiaries

1. New Database "customized" CRM platform plus migration of existing data

Purchase and customize new system to improve efficiency, implement new processes and meet statistical reporting requirements. Should be done by Dec 31, 2020. There has been a delay due to lack of contractors available (and skilled enough) to provide this service in the north as Yukon faces unique challenge. The time required to source this expertise has been approx. 80-100 hours to date. New vendor has been sourced and seems promising. The new build is finally underway. Updated database/statistical tracking system that can meet our current operational and reporting needs. We have discovered that this project is FAR more time consuming and difficult than anticipated! Confident submission of the final claim and an annual report, statistics and KPI's able to be set for management use in areas such as human resources, increased efficency in areas such as client experience (e.g. client satisfaction surveys). YLSS management, YLSS staff, YTG Gov, Federal Gov, Clients who will receive expedited services through upgraded system and improved processes.

2. Website

Update the 10+ year old website and rebrand YLSS with a logo, stationary and business cards. All clinic offices standardized. To date we lack the capacity and resources to complete. Make it more user friendly and include more useful information for viewers. Clients, Public, Territorial and Federal Governments, Researchers, Students, etc.
Northwest Territories
Name of Innovation/Program Objective(s) Timeline Expected/Actual Outcome(s) Performance Measure(s) Beneficiaries
1. LAIN 2.0 Development of new database. 2019 to 2021 Replacement of aged database. Compliance and meaningful reporting. Funders, policy makers and ultimately clients
2. Manager Program Support Streamline deployment of criminal legal aid. 2018/2019 and ongoing Shorten time to complete applications, creation of standard administrative processes. Creation of administrative staff procedures manual. Staff and clients
3. Revised Eligibility Tables Update eligibility criteria that are explainable and transferable. 2018/2019 and ongoing New tables New tables Clients, staff, public
4. Innovations from previous years continue  
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