The author is grateful for the generous research assistance of Lily Chapnik Rosenthal, a graduate student in the combined social work and law program at the Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work and the Faculty of Law at the University of Toronto, who was instrumental during the information retrieval process, the appraisal of the included studies and the legal case analysis.

This project could not have been possible without the financial support of the Department of Justice Canada. I am indebted to the representatives from Family, Children and Youth Section (FCY) and the Research and Statistics Division (RSD) at the Department of Justice Canada.