State of the Criminal Justice System Dashboard
60s Scoop: Government practice of the mass removal of Indigenous children from their homes, to be fostered by or adopted into non-Indigenous families, in most cases without the consent of their families or communities. The practice began in the late 1950s and continued into the 1980s, but was most common in the 1960s.
Binary: A division into two groups that are considered distinct and opposite.
Cisgender: People whose gender identity matches the sex that they were assigned at birth.
Colonialism: Policy of taking political and economic control over one group or nation by another, underpinned by racist doctrines of superiority.
Colonization: The action or process of settling and taking political and economic control of a territory and the people who are Indigenous to that area underpinned by racist doctrines of superiority.
Criminogenic needs: Criminogenic needs refer to issues, risk factors, characteristics and/or problems that relate to a person’s likelihood of reoffending or recidivism. Within a correctional setting, needs are measured related to the following areas: employment/education, community functioning, family/martial situation, associates, attitudes, personal/emotional, and substance abuse.
Criminological research: The study of crime, criminals, criminal behaviour, and corrections.
Culturally relevant: Responses to the distinct needs, values and lived experiences of diverse cultural groups, such as programming designed to be accessible and effective for participants.
Culturally safe space: An environment that recognizes the existence of different needs, values and lived experiences of diverse cultural groups, respects those differences, and ensures that everyone reflects on power imbalances, institutional discrimination, colonization, and colonial relationships, in order to create a safe space.
Distinctions-based approach: An approach that recognizes the unique rights, interests and circumstances of First Nations, Inuit, and Métis as distinct groups.
Gender: A person’s status in society as a man, woman, or as gender-diverse. A person’s gender may be influenced by several factors, including biological features, cultural and behavioural norms, and self-identity.
Gender-based violence: Violence targeted at a person because of their gender, gender expression, gender identity or perceived gender.
Gendered: Characteristic of, suited to, or biased toward or against a certain gender.
Gender-diverse: Refer to individuals who do not identify as exclusively male or exclusively female (for example, individuals who are non-binary or two-spirit).
Gender expression: The way in which people publicly present their gender through aspects such as dress, hair, make-up, body language, and voice.
Gender identity: A person’s internal and deeply felt sense of being a man or woman, both or neither. A person’s gender identity may or may not align with the gender typically associated with their sex.
Gender responsive approaches: Any programming or interventions that recognizes the lived realities of individuals, including pathways to crime, are impacted by gender.
Healing lodges: Environments designed specifically for Indigenous offenders that offer culturally appropriate services and programs that incorporate Indigenous values, traditions and beliefs.
Heterosexual: An individual sexually attracted to people of the opposite sex or gender.
Indigenous identity: Individuals who identify as First Nations, Inuit or Métis.
Intergenerational trauma: Trauma that is passed from one generation to the next generation(s). Coping and adaptation patterns developed in response to traumatic experiences may be learned from or otherwise impact subsequent generations living with survivors, which in turn may be handed down to future generations. Intergenerational trauma may be experienced by groups of people with shared histories, and has resulted from, for example, the historical, systemic mistreatment of First Nations, Inuit and Métis.
Intersectionality: The interconnected nature of various social or identity factors, such as sex, gender, age, race, ethnicity, Indigenous identity, economic status, immigrant status, sexual orientation, disability, and geography, as they apply to a given individual or group, viewed as impacting experiences of discrimination or disadvantage. For example, intersectionality recognizes that Indigenous women hold more than one identity. They are women and share some common experiences with other women, and they are Indigenous and have shared experiences with Indigenous men. Trying to understand Indigenous women’s experiences by focusing only on sex or only on Indigenous identity prevents us from seeing how these identities intersect to create a unique lived experience for Indigenous women that is different from the experiences of Indigenous men and non-Indigenous women.
Intimate partner violence: Violent offences that occur between current and former legally married spouses, common-law partners, boyfriends and girlfriends and other kinds of intimate partners.
Men: All people who identify as men, whether they are cisgender or transgender men.
Non-binary: Person whose gender identity does not align with a binary understanding of gender such as man or woman. A non-binary person may identify as neither a man nor a woman, both, or anywhere along the gender spectrum.
Other Criminal Code violations: Police-reported offences are often grouped into five categories: violent crimes, property crimes, drug offences, other Criminal Code offences, and other federal statute violations. The category “other Criminal Code offences” includes crimes such as disturbing the peace and administration of justice offences, such as failure to comply with an order, failure to appear and breach of probation.
Over-criminalization: Occurs when specific sectors of society, for example members of Indigenous nations and racialized communities, are subject to more police scrutiny, greater likelihood of facing charges for minor offenses, and higher penalties for criminal offenses, such as greater likelihood of being incarcerated rather than serving time in the community. Over-criminalization is the product of long-standing patterns of systemic discrimination that increases the likelihood of negative contact with the justice system and the failure of system officials to understand and respond appropriately to the distinct histories and needs of these communities.
Overrepresented: Disproportionate representation of a group within a subpopulation compared with their representation in the population as a whole; for example, a group that makes up a larger percentage of the prison population than of the general population is overrepresented in prison.
Patriarchal: Characteristic of a system of society or government where men predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property.
Patriarchy: A system of society or government where men predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property.
Patrilineal descent: Tracing descent through the father's side of the family.
Property offences: Property offences involve unlawful acts to gain property, but do not involve the use or threat of violence against the person. These can include offences such as theft, breaking and entering, burglary, auto theft, arson and vandalism.
Sex assigned at birth: A person’s biological status as male, female, or intersex based on their primary sexual characteristics at birth.
Sexual assault: Refers to all incidents of unwanted sexual activity, including sexual attacks and sexual touching.
Sexual orientation: Romantic and sexual attraction for people of the same or another sex or gender.
Shelters: Places where women (and their children) can go to stay, typically when fleeing domestic violence from their partners or spouses.
Social exclusion: Describes a state in which individuals do not have full access to opportunities available to others. This access may be denied because of factors such as race, class, disability or gender.
Socio-economic marginalization: Being blocked from or denied full access to economic opportunities, social opportunities, or resources (e.g., education, employment, housing) that other members of society have because of one or more personal characteristic(s) (e.g., poverty, health and mental health, sex and gender, race, ethnicity, Indigenous identity, immigrant status).
Spousal violence: Violent offences that occur between legally married spouses, common-law partners, as well as separated and divorced spouses.
Trans: Umbrella term that refers to transgender, non-binary and other gender-diverse people. The opposite of cisgender.
Transgender: A person whose current gender does not align with the sex that they were assigned at birth.
Trauma- and violence-informed: Policies and practices that recognize the connections between violence, trauma, negative health outcomes and behaviours.
Two-spirit persons: Umbrella term for some Indigenous people who identify as having both a female and male spirit within them or whose gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation or spiritual identity is not limited by the binary classification of gender as woman or man.
Under-protection: Occurs when members of Indigenous Nations, racialized communities and other sectors of society do not receive the same level of protection from officials within the justice system as others because their concerns are less likely to be treated as credible or given priority.
Unwanted sexual behaviour: Includes unwanted physical contact (e.g., touching or getting too close in a sexual manner), indecent exposure, unwanted comments about sex or gender, unwanted comments about sexual orientation or assumed sexual orientation and unwanted sexual attention (e.g., comments, whistles, gestures, or body language).
Violent offences: Involve the use of or threatened use of violence against a person, including homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual assault, and robbery. Robbery is considered a violent offence because, unlike other theft offences, it involves the use or threat of violence.
Women: All people who identify as women, whether they are cisgender or transgender women.
The following references were used to provide the overview on women and the criminal justice system section. For additional information click on Studies.
Amnesty International. 2004. “Canada: Stolen Sisters: A human rights response to discrimination and violence against Indigenous women in Canada.” Available at: https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/92000/amr200032004en.pdf.
Arbour, The Honorable Justice Louise (Commissioner). 1996. “Commission of Inquiry into Certain Events at the Prison for Women.” Ottawa, ON: Solicitor General. Available at (English only): http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2017/bcp-pco/JS42-73-1996-eng.pdf.
Auditor General of Canada. 2017. “Preparing Women Offenders for Release – Correctional Services Canada.” 2017 Fall Reports of the Auditor General of Canada to the Parliament of Canada, Report 5. Available at: https://www.oag-bvg.gc.ca/internet/English/parl_oag_201711_05_e_42670.html.
Baigent, C. 2020. “Why Gladue Needs an Intersectional Lens: The silencing of sex in Indigenous women’s sentencing decisions.” Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, Volume 32, Issue 1. (pp. 1-30).
Balfour, G. 2020. “Women in Custody.” In Adult Corrections in Canada 2nd edition. M. Weinrath and J. A. Winterdyk (Eds.). (pp. 147-166). de Sitter Publications.
Balfour, G. and E. Comack. 2006. “Criminalizing Women.”Halifax: Fernwood.
Barker, J. 2008. “Gender, Sovereignty, Rights: Native women's activism against social inequality and violence in Canada.” American Quarterly, Volume 60, No. 2. (pp. 259-266).
Bauer, G.R. and A.I. Scheim. 2015. “Transgender People in Ontario, Canada.” Prepared for the Trans PULSE Project. Available at: https://transpulseproject.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/Trans-PULSE-Statistics-Relevant-for-Human-Rights-Policy-June-2015.pdf
Bloom, B., B.A. Owen and S. Covington. 2003. “Gender-Responsive Strategies: Research, practice, and guiding principles for women offenders.”Washington, DC: National Institute of Corrections. Available at: https://s3.amazonaws.com/static.nicic.gov/Library/018017.pdf
Boyce, J. 2016. “Victimization of Aboriginal people in Canada, 2014.” Juristat. Statistics Canada. Available at: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2016001/article/14631-eng.pdf.
Brennan, S. 2014. “Canada’s Mother-Child Program: Examining its emergence, usage, and current state.” Canadian Graduate Journal of Sociology and Criminology.
Brown, G. P., J. Barker, K. McMillian, R. Norman, D. Derkzen, L.A. Stewart and K. Wardrop. 2018a. “Prevalence of Mental Disorders Among Federally Sentenced Women Offenders: In-custody and intake samples.” Research Report R-420. Ottawa, ON: Correctional Service of Canada. Available at: http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2018/scc-csc/PS83-3-420-eng.pdf.
Brown, G. P., J. Barker, K. McMillian, R. Norman, D. Derkzen and L. Stewart. 2018b. “National Prevalence of Mental Disorders Among Federally Sentenced Women Offenders: In-custody sample.” Research Report R-406. Ottawa, ON: Correctional Service of Canada. Available at: https://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/research/092/R-406-en.pdf
Burczycka, M. 2016a. “Section 1: Trends in self-reported spousal violence in Canada, 2014.” Juristat. Statistics Canada. Available at: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2016001/article/14303/01-eng.htm.
Burczycka, M. 2016b. “Section 3: Police-reported intimate partner violence.” Juristat. Statistics Canada. Available at: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2018001/article/54893/03-eng.htm.
Burczycka, M. 2018. “Violent Victimization of Canadians with Mental Health-related Disabilities, 2014.” Juristat.Statistics Canada. Available at: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2018001/article/54977-eng.htm.
Burczycka, M. 2019. “Section 2: Police-reported intimate partner violence in Canada, 2018.” Juristat, Statistics Canada. Available at: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2019001/article/00018/02-eng.htm.
Cameron, A. 2008. “R v. Gladue: Sentencing and the gendered impacts of colonialism.” in J. White, ed. Moving Toward Justice: Legal Traditions and Aboriginal Justice. Saskatoon: Purich Pub in association with the Saskatchewan Institute of Public Policy.
Canadian Human Rights Commission. 2003. “Protecting Their Rights: A systematic review of human rights in correctional services for federally sentenced women.” Available at: https://www.chrc-ccdp.gc.ca/eng/content/protecting-their-rights-systemic-review-human-rights-correctional-services-federally.
Carrier Sekani Tribal Council. 2013. “Nilhchuk-un: Those who take us away.” Press Release. Available at: https://www.hrw.org/report/2013/02/13/those-who-take-us-away/abusive-policing-and-failures-protection-indigenous-women.
Chansonneuve, D. 2005. “Reclaiming Connections: Understanding residential school trauma among Aboriginal people.” Ottawa, ON: The Aboriginal Healing Foundation. Available at http://ahf.ca/downloads/healing-trauma-web-eng.pdf.
Chartrand, L. and K. Horn. 2016. “A Report on the Relationship Between Restorative Justice and Indigenous Legal Traditions in Canada.” Ottawa, ON: Department of Justice. Available at https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/jr/rjilt-jrtja/index.html.
Clark, S. 2019. “Overrepresentation of Indigenous People in the Canadian Criminal Justice System: Causes and Responses.” Ottawa, ON: Department of Justice. Available at https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/jr/oip-cjs/index.html.
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). 2015. “Report of the Inquiry Concerning Canada of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women Under Article 8 of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women” (CEDAW/C/OP.8/CAN/1). Available at: https://undocs.org/CEDAW/C/OP.8/CAN/1.
Conroy, S. 2018. “Police-reported Violence against Girls and Young Women in Canada, 2017.” Juristat. Statistics Canada. Available at: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2018001/article/54981-eng.htm.
Conroy, S. 2019. “Section 1: Police-reported family violence against children and youth in Canada, 2018.” Juristat. Statistics Canada. Available at: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2019001/article/00018/01-eng.htm.
Conroy, S. and A. Cotter. 2017. "Self-reported Sexual Assault in Canada, 2014." Juristat. Statistics Canada. Available at: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2017001/article/14842-eng.htm.
Correctional Service of Canada. 1990. “Creating Choices: The report of the Task Force on Federally Sentenced Women.” Available at: https://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/women/092/002002-0001-en.pdf.
Correctional Service of Canada. 2014. “Reintegration Challenges Facing Women Offenders.” No. RS 14-08. Available at: https://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/research/005008-rs14-08-eng.shtml.
Cotter, A. 2018. “Violent Victimization of Women with Disabilities, 2014.” Juristat. Statistics Canada. Available at: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2018001/article/54910-eng.htm.
Cotter, A. and L. Savage. 2019. “Gender-based Violence and Unwanted Sexual Behaviour in Canada, 2018: Initial findings from the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces.” Juristat. Statistics Canada. Available at: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2019001/article/00017-eng.htm.
Craig, E. 2018. “Putting Trials on Trial: Sexual assault and the failure of the legal profession.” McGill-Queen’s University Press.
Cram, S. and Farrell MacDonald, S. 2019. “Substance Use Patterns of Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Women Offenders.” Research in Brief. Correctional Service Canada. Available at https://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/005/008/092/rib-19-08-en.pdf.
Cunningham, A. and L. Baker. 2004. “Invisible Victims: The children of women in prison.” London, ON: Centre for Children and Families in the Justice System. Available at: http://cplegal.ca/criminallawnews/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Invisible-Victims.pdf.
David, J. 2017. “Homicide in Canada, 2016.” Juristat. Statistics Canada. Available at https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2017001/article/54879-eng.htm.
Dawson, M., D. Sutton, P. Jaffe, A.-L. Straatman and J. Poon, J. 2018. “One is Too Many: Trends and patterns in domestic homicides in Canada 2010-2015.” Canadian Domestic Homicide Prevention Initiative. Available at: http://cdhpi.ca/sites/cdhpi.ca/files/CDHPI-REPORTRV.pdf.
Department of Justice Canada. 2012. “An Estimation of the Economic Impact of Spousal Violence in Canada, 2009.” Available at: https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/cj-jp/fv-vf/rr12_7/rr12_7.pdf.
Department of Justice Canada. 2017a. “JustFacts: Indigenous Overrepresentation in the Criminal Justice System.” Research and Statistics Division. Available at: https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/jr/jf-pf/2017/docs/jan02.pdf.
Department of Justice Canada. 2017b. “Spotlight on Gladue: Challenges, Experiences, and Possibilities in Canada’s Criminal Justice System.” Research and Statistics Division. Available at: https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/jr/gladue/gladue.pdf.
Department of Justice Canada. 2019a “JustFacts: Indigenous Overrepresentation in the Criminal Justice System.” Research and Statistics Division. Available at: https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/jr/jf-pf/2019/may01.html.
Department of Justice Canada. 2019b. “JustFacts: Sexual Assault.” Research and Statistics Division. Available at: https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/jr/jf-pf/2019/docs/apr01.pdf.
Derkzen, D., A. Harris and K. Wardrop. 2017. “Assessment of Aboriginal Women Offender Correctional Programming (AWOCP) Outcomes.” Research Report R-391. Ottawa, ON: Correctional Service of Canada. Available at: https://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/research/r-391-en.shtml.
Enos, S. 2001. “Mothering from the Inside: Parenting in a women’s prison.” Albany, NY: University of New York Press.
Faith, K. 1993. “Unruly Women: The politics of confinement and resistance.”Vancouver: Press Gang.
Ferguson, S. J. (2016). “Women and Education: Qualifications, skills, and technology.” Women in Canada, a gender based statistical report.Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 89-503-X. Available at: http://www.publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2016/statcan/89-503-x/89-503-x14640-eng.pdf.
Gartner, R. and M. Jung. 2014. “Sex, Gender, and Homicide: Contemporary trends and patterns.” In R. Gartner and B. McCarthy (eds.) The Oxford Handbook Gender, Sex, and Crime. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gilfus, M. E. 2002. “Women’s Experiences of Abuse as a Risk Factor for Incarceration.” Applied Research Forum. National Online Resource Centre on Violence Against Women. Available at: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.208.7443&rep=rep1&type=pdf.
Hackett, C. 2013. “Transformative Visions: Governing through alternative practices and therapeutic interventions at a woman’s re-entry centre.” Feminist Criminology, 8(3). (pp. 221-242).
Hannah-Moffat, K. 2008. “Re-Imagining Gendered Penalties: The myth of gender responsivity.” Pat Carlen (ed.) Imaginary Penalties, UK: Willan.
Hannah-Moffat, K. 2010. “Sacrosanct or Flawed: Risk, accountability and gender responsive penal politics.” Current Issues in Criminal Justice, 22(2). (pp. 193-215).
Hannah-Moffat, K. 2017. “Women in Prison: Who and why?” In M. J. Hird, G. Pavlich (eds.) Questioning Sociology: Canadian Perspectives. (pp.215-228).
Hannah-Moffat, K. and M. Shaw. 2001. “Taking Risks: Incorporating gender and culture into the assessment and classification of federally sentenced women in Canada.” Ottawa, ON: Status of Women.
Hansen, J. G. 2012. “Countering Imperial Justice: The implications of a Cree response to crime.” Indigenous Policy Journal, 23(1). Available at http://articles.indigenouspolicy.org/index.php/ipj/article/view/47.
Harris, A., J. Thompson and D. Derkzen. 2015. “Assessment of Women Offender Correctional Programming (WOCP) Outcomes.” Research Report R-374. Ottawa, ON: Correctional Service of Canada. Available at: https://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/005/008/092/r-374-eng.pdf
Herberle, R. 2014. “Sexual Violence.” In R. Gartner and B. McCarthy (eds.) The Oxford Handbook Gender, Sex, and Crime. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hill, J. 2009. “Working with Victims of Crime: A manual applying research to clinical practice.” Ottawa, ON: Prepared for the Department of Justice Canada. Available at: https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/cj-jp/victim/res-rech/index.html.
Holmes, C. and S. Hunt. 2017. “Indigenous Communities and Family Violence: Changing the conversation.” National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health. Available at: https://www.ccnsa-nccah.ca/docs/emerging/RPT-FamilyViolence-Holmes-Hunt-EN.pdf.
House of Commons Standing Committee on the Status of Women. 2018. “A Call to Action: Reconciliation with Indigenous women in the federal justice and correctional systems.” Available at: https://www.ourcommons.ca/DocumentViewer/en/42-1/FEWO/report-13/.
House Standing Committee on Justice and Human Rights. 2017. Number 72, Session 1, 41st Parliament. Commentary by Carissima Mathen, Professor of Law of the University of Ottawa Law School.
Human Rights Watch. 2013. “Those Who Take Us Away: Abusive policing and failures in protection of Indigenous women and girls in northern British Columbia, Canada.” Available at: https://hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/canada0213webwcover_0.pdf.
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR). 2014. “Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women in British Columbia, Canada.” (OEA/Ser.L/V/II. Doc.30/14), 21 December 2014. Available at: https://www.oas.org/en/iachr/reports/pdfs/indigenous-women-bc-canada-en.pdf
Jackson, M. 1989. “Locking Up Natives in Canada.” University of British Columbia Law Review, 23(2). (pp. 215-300). Available at https://commons.allard.ubc.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1027&context=emeritus_pubs.
Jefferys, J. 2018. “Indigenous Communities Across Canada Need Women’s Shelters Now.” Chatelaine. Available at: https://www.chatelaine.com/news/womens-shelters-indigenous-communities/
Johnson, H. 2012. “Limits of a Criminal Justice Response: Trends in police and court processing of sexual assault.” In E. A. Sheehy (Ed.), Sexual Assault in Canada: Law, Legal Practice and Women’s Activism. (pp. 613-634). Ottawa, ON. University of Ottawa Press.
Kong, R. and K. AuCoin. 2008. “Female Prisoners in Canada.” Juristat. Statistics Canada. Available at: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2008001/article/10509-eng.htm.
Kong, R. and K. Beattie. 2005. “Collecting Data on Aboriginal People in the Criminal Justice System: Methods and challenges.” Juristat. Statistics Canada. Available at: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/pub/85-564-x/85-564-x2005001-eng.pdf?st=EVdpPlEV.
Kruttschnitt, C. 2013. “Gender and Crime.” Annual Review of Sociology. 39. (pp. 291-308).
Kubik, W., C. Bourassa and M. Hampton. 2009. “Stolen Sisters, Second Class Citizens, Poor Health: The legacy of colonization in Canada.” Humanity & Society, Volume 33 Issue 1-2. (pp. 18-34).
Lindsay, M. 2014. “A Survey of Survivors of Sexual Violence in Three Canadian Cities.” Ottawa, ON: Department of Justice Canada. Available at: https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/cj-jp/victim/rr13_19/rr13_19.pdf.
Mahony, T. H. 2015. “Women and the Criminal Justice System.” In Women in Canada: A gender-based statistical report.Statistics Canada. Available at: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/89-503-x/2015001/article/14785-eng.pdf.
Mahony, T. H., J. Jacob and H. Hobson. 2017. “Women and the Criminal Justice System” In Women in Canada: A gender-based statistical report. Statistics Canada. Available at: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/pub/89-503-x/2015001/article/14785-eng.pdf?st=hNw_MPAY.
Maidment, M. 2006. “Doing Time on the Outside: Deconstructing the benevolent community.” Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press
Malakieh, J. 2019. “Adult and Youth Correctional Statistics in Canada, 2017/2018.” Juristat. Statistics Canada. Available at https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2019001/article/00010-eng.htm.
Manitoba Justice Inquiry. 1991. “Report of the Aboriginal Justice Inquiry of Manitoba.” Available at: http://www.ajic.mb.ca/volume.html.
Maxwell, A. 2020. “Shelters for victims of abuse with ties to Indigenous communities or organizations in Canada, 2017/2018.” Juristat. Statistics Canada. Available at: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2020001/article/00007-eng.htm.
Mills, A. and K. Kendall. 2016. “Mental Health in Prisons.” In Handbook on Prisons. Y. Jewkes, B. Crewe, and J. Bennett (Eds.). (pp. 187-204). Routledge.
Moorcroft, L. 2011. “If My Life Depended on It: Yukon women and the RCMP”, Advisory Committee member representing Yukon women’s groups, Submission to Review of Yukon’s Police Force 2010. Available at: http://www.policereview2010.gov.yk.ca/fr/pdf/If_My_Life_Depended_On_It_Yukon_women_and_the_RCMP_Jan.pdf.
Mulligan, L., M. Axford and A. Solecki. 2016.“Homicide in Canada, 2015.” Juristat. Statistics Canada. Available at: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2016001/article/14668-eng.pdf.
National Aboriginal Circle Against Family Violence (NACAFV) and Quebec Native Women Inc. (QNW). 2017. “Alternative Report to the U.N. Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, 93rd Session, 31 July to 25 August 2017.” Available at: http://nacafv.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/NACAFV-QNW-Joint-Submission.pdf.
National Inquiry on Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls. 2019. “Reclaiming Power and Place: The final report of the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls.” Available at: https://www.mmiwg-ffada.ca/final-report/.
Native Women’s Association of Canada (NWAC). 2010. “What Their Stories Tell Us: Research findings from the sisters in spirit initiative.” Available at: https://www.nwac.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/2010-What-Their-Stories-Tell-Us-Research-Findings-SIS-Initiative.pdf.
Nunavik Regional Board of Health and Social Services. 2004. “Qanuippitaa? How Are We? Nunavik Inuit Health Survey 2004.” Available at: https://www.inspq.qc.ca/pdf/publications/774_ESISurveyHighlights.pdf.
Office of the Correctional Investigator. 2012. “Spirit Matters: Aboriginal People and the Corrections and Conditional Release Act.” Available at: https://www.oci-bec.gc.ca/cnt/rpt/oth-aut/oth-aut20121022-eng.aspx.
Office of the Correctional Investigator. 2019. “2018-2019 Annual Report.” Available at: https://www.oci-bec.gc.ca/cnt/rpt/pdf/annrpt/annrpt20182019-eng.pdf.
Ontario Native Women’s Association (ONWA). 1989. “Breaking Free: A proposal for change to Aboriginal family violence.” Available at: http://www.oaith.ca/assets/files/Publications/Breaking-Free-Report.pdf
Oppal, W.T. 2012.“Forsaken: the report of the Missing Women Commission of Inquiry.” http://www.missingwomeninquiry.ca/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/Forsaken-Vol-1-web-RGB.pdf.
Pauktuutit Inuit Women of Canada. 2019. “Study of Gender-based Violence and Shelter Services Needs across Inuit Nunangat”. https://www.pauktuutit.ca/project/study-of-gender-based-violence-and-shelter-services-needs-across-inuit-nunangat/.
Perreault, S. 2015. “Criminal Victimization in Canada, 2014.” Juristat. Statistics Canada. Available at: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2015001/article/14241-eng.htm.
Pizzini-Gambetta, V. 2014. “Organized Crime: The gender constraints of illegal markets.” (pp. 448-467). In R. Gartner and B. McCarthy (eds.) The Oxford Handbook Gender, Sex, and Crime. New York: Oxford University Press.
Pollack, S. 2007. “I’m Just Not Good in Relationships: Victimization discourses and the gendered regulation of criminalized women.” Feminist Criminology, 2(2). (pp. 158-174).
Public Safety Canada. 2019. “2018 Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.” Available at: https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/ccrso-2018/index-en.aspx.
Richie, B. 2001. “Challenges Incarcerated Women Face As They Return To Their Communities: Findings from life history interviews.” Crime & Delinquency, 47(3). (pp. 368-389).
Rotenburg, C. and A. Cotter. 2018. “Police-reported Sexual Assaults in Canada Before and After MeToo, 2016 and 2017.” Juristat. Statistics Canada. Available at: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2018001/article/54979-eng.htm.
Roy, J. and S. Marcellus. 2019. “Homicide in Canada, 2018.” Juristat. Statistics Canada. Available at: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2019001/article/00016-eng.htm.
Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP). 2014. “Missing and Murdered Aboriginal Women: A national operational overview.” Available at: http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/en/missing-and-murdered-aboriginal-women-national-operational-overview.
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP). 1996. “Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples.” Available at: https://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/aboriginal-heritage/royal-commission-aboriginal-peoples/Pages/final-report.aspx.
Rudin, J. n.d. “Aboriginal Peoples and the Criminal Justice System.” Available at: https://www.attorneygeneral.jus.gov.on.ca/inquiries/ipperwash/policy_part/research/pdf/Rudin.pdf.
Rudin, J. 2008. “Aboriginal Over-representation and R. v. Gladue: Where we were, where we are and where we might be going.” The Supreme Court Law Review: Osgoode’s Annual Constitutional Cases Conference, Vol 40.
Sable, M. R., F. Danis, D. L. Mauzy and S. K. Gallagher. 2006. “Barriers to Reporting Sexual Assault for Women and Men: Perspectives of college students.” Journal of American College Health. Vol. 55, no. 3. (pp. 157-162).
Sapers, H. 2012. “Correctional Investigator Annual Report, 2011-2012.” Ottawa, ON: Office of the Correctional Investigator. Available at: https://www.oci-bec.gc.ca/cnt/rpt/pdf/annrpt/annrpt20112012-eng.pdf
Savage, L. 2019. “Female Offenders in Canada, 2017.” Juristat. Statistics Canada. Available at: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/pub/85-002-x/2019001/article/00001-eng.pdf?st=nrwp13Ao
Sharp, S.F. and S. T. Marcus-Mendoza. 2001. “It’s a Family Affair: Incarcerated women and their families.” Women and Criminal Justice, 12(4). (pp. 21-49).
Shaw M. with K. Rodgers, J. Blanchette, T. Hattem, L. S. Thomas and L. Tamarack. 1991. “The Release Study: Survey of federally sentenced women in the community.” Ottawa, ON: Ministry of the Solicitor General of Canada. Available at: https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/lbrr/archives/hv%209507%20s45%201991-eng.pdf
Simpson, L. 2018. “Violent Victimization of Lesbians, Gays and Bisexuals in Canada, 2014.” Juristat. Statistics Canada. Available at: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/pub/85-002-x/2018001/article/54923-eng.pdf?st=luHRxtAW
Sinha, M. 2013. “Measuring Violence Against Women: Statistical trend.” Juristat, Statistics Canada. Available at: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/pub/85-002-x/2013001/article/11766-eng.pdf?st=0JEV0Q8F.
Statistics Canada. Table 35-10-0156-01 – Number, percentage and rate of homicide victims, by sex and Aboriginal identity. Available at: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=3510015601.
Statistics Canada. 2006. “Measuring Violence Against Women: Statistical trends 2006.” Available at: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/pub/85-570-x/85-570-x2006001-eng.pdf?st=5F4xWUl2.
Statistics Canada. 2016. Data tables, 2016 Census: Family characteristics, Aboriginal identity, registered or treaty Indian status, residence by Aboriginal geography, age, and sex for the population in private households of Canada, provinces and territories. Census of Population, Statistics Canada. Available at: https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/dt-td/Rp-eng.cfm....
Statistics Canada. 2017. “Census in Brief: The housing conditions of Aboriginal people in Canada.” Available at: https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/as-sa/98-200-x/2016021/98-200-x2016021-eng.pdf.
Stewart, L., K. Wardrop, G. Wilton, J. Thompson, D. Derkzen and L. Motiuk. 2017. “Reliability and Validity of the Dynamic Factors Identification and Analysis – Revised.” Research Report R-395. Correctional Service of Canada. Available at: https://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/005/008/092/r-395-eng.pdf
Taylor, S.C. and L. Gassner. 2010. “Stemming the Flow: Challenges for policing adult sexual assault with regard to attrition rates and under-reporting of sexual offences.” Police Practice and Research. Vol 11, no. 3. (pp. 240-255).
Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (TRC). 2015. “Honouring the Truth, Reconciling for the Future: Summary of the final report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada.” Available at: http://nctr.ca/assets/reports/Final%20Reports/Executive_Summary_English_Web.pdf.
Turnbull, S. and K. Hannah-Moffat. 2009. “Under These Conditions: Gender, parole, and the governance of reintegration.” British Journal of Criminology, 49. (pp. 1-20).
United Nations (UN). 2014. “Handbook on Women and Imprisonment: 2nd edition, with reference to the United Nations rules for the treatment of women prisoners and non-custodial measures for women offenders (The Bangkok Rules).” In Criminal Justice handbook series. New York: UN.
Vecchio, K. 2018. “A Call to Action: Reconciliation with Indigenous women in the federal justice and correctional systems.” House of Commons, Standing Committee on the Status of Women. https://www.ourcommons.ca/Content/Committee/421/FEWO/Reports/RP9991306/feworp13/feworp13-e.pdf.
Venema, R. M. 2014. “Police Officer Schema of Sexual Assault Reports: Real rape, ambiguous cases, and false reports.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Volume 35, No. 5. (pp. 1-28).
Viens, J. 2019. “Public Inquiry Commission on Relations Between Indigenous Peoples and Certain Public Services in Québec: Listening, reconciliation and progress.”Available at: https://www.cerp.gouv.qc.ca/fileadmin/Fichiers_clients/Rapport/Final_report.pdf.
Wesley, M. 2012. “Marginalized: Aboriginal women’s experience in federal corrections.” Public Safety Canada. Available at: https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/mrgnlzd/mrgnlzd-eng.pdf.
Williams, T. 2007. “Punishing Women: The promise and perils of contextualized sentencing for Aboriginal women in Canada.” Cleveland State Law Review, Volume 55, Issue 3. (pp. 269-287).
Zinger, I. 2018. “Evidence Before the House of Commons Standing Committee on the Status of Women.” Available at: https://www.ourcommons.ca/DocumentViewer/en/42-1/fewo/meeting-87/evidence