State of the Criminal Justice System Dashboard
The following list of studies and reports is provided as a resource to assist Dashboard users in their search for information on women and the criminal justice system. The list was developed with subject matter experts to help connect data users to qualitative and quantitative research that could be useful for contextualizing the performance data presented in the Dashboard.
Studies and Reports – All Women
Brown, G. P., J. Barker, K. McMillian, R. Norman, D. Derkzen, L.A. Stewart and K. Wardrop. 2018. “Prevalence of mental disorders among federally sentenced women offenders: In-Custody and intake samples.” (Research Report R-420). Ottawa, ON: Correctional Service Canada. Available at: https://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/research/r-420-en.shtml
This Correctional Service Canada study examines the prevalence of major mental health disorders among federally sentence women offenders.
Conroy, S. and A. Cotter. 2017. "Self-reported sexual assault in Canada, 2014.” Juristat. Statistics Canada. Available at: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2017001/article/14842-eng.htm
This Juristat article examines self-reported incidents of sexual assault that occurred in the 12 months that preceded the 2014 General Social Survey (GSS) on Canadians’ Safety (Victimization). Data from the 2004 GSS on Victimization are also included to present trends over time.
Correctional Service of Canada. 2014. “Reintegration Challenges Facing Women Offenders.” No. RS 14 08. Available at: https://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/research/005008-rs14-08-eng.shtml
This Correctional Service Canada study examines the needs of women offenders under community supervision. The study uses data from an online survey of community and institutional parole officers.
Department of Justice Canada. 2019. “JustFacts: Sexual Assault.” Research and Statistics Division. Available at: https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/jr/jf-pf/2019/docs/apr01.pdf
This fact sheet presents information on sexual assault in Canada based on self-reported data from the General Social Survey on Canadians’ Safety (Victimization), police-reported data from the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, and court data from the Adult Criminal Court Survey.
Mahony, T. H., J. Jacob and H. Hobson. 2017. “Women and the Criminal Justice System.” In Women in Canada: A gender-based statistical report, seventh edition.Statistics Canada. Available at: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/pub/89-503-x/2015001/article/14785-eng.pdf?st=hNw_MPAY
This report examines trends in the prevalence and nature of crime against women and girls, compared with men and boys. The report highlights important differences in violent victimization by Indigenous identity, immigrant status, visible minority status, and age. The report also examines gender differences in the perpetration of crime.
Prochuk, A. 2018. “We are Here: Women’s Experiences of the Barriers to Reporting Sexual Assault.” West Coast LEAF. Available at: http://www.westcoastleaf.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/West-Coast-Leaf-dismantling-web-final.pdf
This qualitative study examines the experiences of 18 sexual assault survivors with the criminal justice system. It also explores what factors informed their decision on whether or not to report the assault and ways to make the system more responsive to survivors’ needs.
Savage, L. 2019. “Female Offenders in Canada, 2017.” Juristat. Statistics Canada. Available at: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/pub/85-002-x/2019001/article/00001-eng.pdf?st=nrwp13Ao
This Juristat article presents data on female offending from the Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Survey, the Homicide Survey, the General Social Survey (GSS) on Canadians’ Safety (Victimization) and the Integrated Criminal Courts Survey (ICCS).
Studies and Reports – Indigenous Women and Girls
Department of Justice Canada. 2017. “JustFacts: Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls.” Research and Statistics Division. Available at: https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/jr/jf-pf/2017/july04.html
This fact sheet presents information on murdered and missing Indigenous women and girls in Canada using data from various sources, including the “Missing and Murdered Aboriginal Women: 2015 Update to the National Operational Overview” report by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP).
Department of Justice Canada. 2017. “JustFacts: Victimization of Indigenous Women and Girls.” Research and Statistics Division. Available at: https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/jr/jf-pf/2017/july05.html
This fact sheet presents information on the victimization of Indigenous women and girls in Canada using data from various sources, including the General Social Survey (GSS) on Canadians’ Safety (Victimization).
Department of Justice Canada. 2019. “JustFacts: Indigenous Overrepresentation in the Criminal Justice System.” Research and Statistics Division. Available at: https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/jr/jf-pf/2019/may01.html
This fact sheet presents information on the overrepresentation of Indigenous people in the criminal justice system based on self-reported data from the General Social Survey on Canadians’ Safety (Victimization), Homicide Survey, Adult Correctional Services Survey (ACS), Integrated Correctional Services Survey (ICSS), and the Canadian Correctional Services Survey (CCSS).
Derkzen, D., A. Harris, and K. Wardrop. 2017. “Assessment of Aboriginal Women Offender Correctional Programming (AWOCP): Outcomes.” (Research Report R-391). Correctional Service of Canada. Available at: http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2018/scc-csc/PS83-3-391-eng.pdf
This Correctional Service Canada study examines the extent to which Aboriginal Women Offender Correctional Program objectives were achieved, program participation and attrition rates, participant treatment gains, and release outcomes.
Dickson-Gilmore, J. 2014. “Whither restorativeness? Restorative justice and the challenge of intimate violence in Aboriginal communities.” Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 56(4), 417-446. Available at: https://www.utpjournals.press/doi/pdf/10.3138/cjccj.2014.S02
Drawing upon years of work with Cree communities, this article explores the realities of intimate partner and family violence and restorative responses, arguing that there is additional work to be done before restorative processes can be applied to these forms of violence in these communities.
Holmes, C. and S. Hunt. 2017. “Indigenous communities and family violence: Changing the conversation.” National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health. Available at: https://www.ccnsa-nccah.ca/docs/emerging/RPT-FamilyViolence-Holmes-Hunt-EN.pdf
This report examines Canadian literature on Indigenous family violence from 2000 to 2015. A decolonial social determinants framework is used to redefine the terms “family” and “violence” to reflect the diverse realities of Indigenous families.
Kubik, W., C. Bourassa and M. Hampton. 2009. “Stolen sisters, second class citizens, poor health: The legacy of colonization in Canada.” Available at: https://www.amnesty.ca/sites/amnesty/files/amr200032004enstolensisters.pdf
The report investigates the role of discrimination in violence carried out against Indigenous women in Canada, which takes the form of both overt cultural prejudice and implicit or systemic biases in government policies and actions or society more broadly.
Pauktuutit Inuit Women of Canada. 2019.“Study of Gender-based Violence and Shelter Services Needs across Inuit Nunangat.” Available at: https://www.pauktuutit.ca/project/study-of-gender-based-violence-and-shelter-services-needs-across-inuit-nunangat/
The study by Pauktuutit Inuit Women of Canada was conducted to increase understanding of factors affecting Inuit women’s experiences of violence. It explores the determinants of gender-based violence and identifies service gaps to address the needs of Inuit women experiencing violence.
Thompson, J. and R. Gobeil. 2015. “Aboriginal Women – An Overview of the Correctional Process from Admission to Expiry.” (Research Report R342). Correctional Service of Canada. Available at: https://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/research/005008-r342-eng.shtml
This Correctional Service Canada study examines differences between First Nations and Métis federal women offenders. It includes a comprehensive examination of social histories and correctional experiences of federal women offenders admitted between 2008 and 2010.
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