Learn More about Indigenous Peoples and the Criminal Justice System

State of the Criminal Justice System Dashboard

Governmental, Legislative and Judicial Responses

The following is a timeline of judicial, legislative and governmental responses regarding the overrepresentation of Indigenous people as victims/survivors and accused/convicted persons, in the criminal justice system over the past 30 years. Additionally, milestones with regard to the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples are also included on this timeline. This is not an exhaustive list, only a selection of those that are publicly available online have been included in the timeline. For more information about the response, click on the title below.

For governmental and legislative milestones included in the Women’s theme, click on the link below:

  • Task Force on the Reintegration of Aboriginal Offenders as Law Abiding Citizens
    Report Name Final Report: Task Force on Aboriginal People in Federal Corrections
    Jurisdiction Federal
    Purpose/Mandate Prompted by the Solicitor General of Canada, the Task Force was established in 1987 to: examine the process which Aboriginal offenders go through, from the time of admission to a federal penitentiary until warrant expiry; identify the needs of Aboriginal offenders; and to identify ways of improving their opportunities for social reintegration as law abiding citizens, through improved: penitentiary placement, institutional programs, preparation for temporary absences, day parole and full parole, and innovative supervision. A total of 47 recommendations (including a number of sub-recommendations) were made.
    Link https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED363457.pdf
  • Royal Commission on the Donald Marshall Jr Prosecution
    Report Name Royal Commission on the Donald Marshall, Jr., Prosecution Digest of Findings and Recommendations
    Jurisdiction Nova Scotia
    Purpose/Mandate The Commission, appointed by the Nova Scotia Government, was established to determine the facts surrounding the Donald Marshall Jr case to determine whether he was the victim of a miscarriage of justice and to understand how and why that miscarriage occurred; as well as identify recommendations to prevent such tragedies from occurring again. Donald Marshall Jr was sentenced to life imprisonment for murdering an acquaintance, Sandy Seale in 1971. Marshall spent 11 years in prison before being acquitted by the Nova Scotia Court of Appeal in 1983. He always maintained his innocence. A total of 82 recommendations were made.
    Link https://www.novascotia.ca/just/marshall_inquiry/_docs/Royal%20Commission%20on%20the%20Donald%20Marshall%20Jr%20Prosecution_findings.pdf
  • Osnaburgh Windigo Tribal Justice Review
    Report Name Report of the Osnaburgh-Windigo Tribal Council Justice Review Committee
    Jurisdiction Ontario
    Purpose/Mandate The Osnaburgh Windigo Tribal Justice Review was established to examine all aspects of policing, administration of justice, and related social services; and make recommendations to the Ontario government for their improvement. One of the incidents that was the impetus of this review was the arrest of Stanley Shingebois, member of the Osnaburgh First Nation, for being drunk in public. While in custody he became a quadriplegic. The police officer that was criminally charged was acquitted. A total of 43 recommendations (including a number of sub-recommendations) were made.
    Link https://archive.org/details/mag_00004639
  • R v Sparrow
    Case Number R. v. Sparrow, [1990] 1 S.C.R. 1075
    Key Question Interpretation of Aboriginal rights with s. 35(1) of the Constitution Act.
    Court level Supreme Court of Canada
    Summary of Case and Decision The Supreme Court of Canada ruled that Aboriginal peoples have a right, as defined in the Constitution, to fish for food, social and ceremonial purposes and that right takes priority over all others, after conservation. The Sparrow case was the first opportunity for the Supreme Court of Canada to interpret what Section 35 of the 1982 Constitution Act, meant by stating: “The existing aboriginal and treaty rights of the aboriginal peoples of Canada are hereby recognized and affirmed”. Through this ruling, the Court affirmed that the Constitution Act provides "a strong measure of protection" for Aboriginal rights, and that any proposed government regulations that infringe on the exercise of those rights must be constitutionally justified.
    Link https://scc-csc.lexum.com/scc-csc/scc-csc/en/item/609/index.do
  • Report of the Task Force on the Criminal Justice System and its Impacts on the Indian and Métis People of Alberta
    Report Name Justice on Trial (Cawsey Report)
    Jurisdiction Alberta
    Purpose/Mandate The Task Force was appointed to complete a review of the criminal justice system in Alberta, and report to the Solicitor General of Canada and the Solicitor General of Alberta, about any problems and solutions to ensure that First Nations and Métis people receive fair, just and equitable treatment at all stages of the criminal justice process in Alberta. A total of 341 recommendations were made.
    Link https://open.alberta.ca/publications/1369434
  • Aboriginal Peoples and Criminal Justice: Equality, Respect and the Search for Justice
    Report Name Law Reform Commission of Canada. Report on Aboriginal Peoples and Criminal Justice: Equality, Respect and the Search for Justice
    Jurisdiction National
    Purpose/Mandate The Minister of Justice asked the Law Reform Commission of Canada to look at the Criminal Code and related statutes to examine the extent to which Aboriginal persons and cultural or religious minorities have equal access to justice and are treated equitably and with respect. Two studies were undertaken and two reports were produced. A total of 15 recommendations (including a number of sub-recommendations) were made in the report on Aboriginal peoples and criminal justice.
    Link https://archive.org/details/reportonaborigin00lawr
  • Public Inquiry into the Administration of Justice and Aboriginal People (Aboriginal Justice Inquiry)
    Report Name Report of the Aboriginal Justice Inquiry of Manitoba
    Jurisdiction Manitoba
    Purpose/Mandate The purpose of the Commission was to inquire into the state of conditions with respect to Aboriginal people in the Manitoba justice system. The inquiry was called as a result of two specific incidents: the 16 year delayed trial for the murder of Helen Betty Osborne and the shooting death of J.J. Harper by a Winnipeg police officer. The Commission was also required to examine all aspects of the cases to note if further inquiry was recommended. A total of 48 recommendations (including a number of sub-recommendations) were made in the report.
    Link http://www.ajic.mb.ca/volume.html
  • Section 81 and 84 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act
    Name of Act Corrections and Conditional Release Act (CCRA)
    Jurisdiction Federal
    Overview of Sections
    Amendments to the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (CCRA), Sections 81 and 84, provide the opportunity for Aboriginal communities to become active partners in the care and custody of Aboriginal offenders and the provision of correctional services. These provisions allow Correctional Service of Canada to work in partnership with Aboriginal communities to provide Aboriginal offenders with innovative services that Correctional Service of Canada could not itself provide in a culturally effective manner.
    Section 81 of the CCRA supports a wide spectrum of custodial or service delivery arrangements for the care and custody of Aboriginal offenders. Services that can be provided under Section 81 include: transfer of an offender to an Aboriginal community under a Section 81 Custody Agreement; operation of a facility designed for Aboriginal offenders where an offender may reside while on conditional release (e.g., a halfway house, a healing lodge, etc.); parole supervision or services offered in the Aboriginal community or an urban center; and correctional services delivered within federal institutions or by community parole offices.
    Under section 84 of the CCRA, for an inmate who is applying for parole who has expressed an interest in being released to an Aboriginal community, the CSC shall, if the inmate consents, give the Aboriginal community: adequate notice of the inmate's parole application; and an opportunity to propose a plan for the inmate's release to, and integration into, the Aboriginal community. Section 84 requires Correctional Service of Canada to seek the participation of Aboriginal communities.
    Link https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/C-44.6/page-10.html#docCont
  • Saskatchewan Indian Justice Review Committee
    Report Name Report of the Saskatchewan Indian Justice Review Committee
    Jurisdiction Saskatchewan
    Purpose/Mandate The Saskatchewan Indian Justice Review Committee was established to make recommendations relating to the delivery of criminal justice services to Saskatchewan Indian people and communities and in particular, relating to the development and operation of practical, community-based initiatives intended to enhance such services. A total of 92 recommendations were made in the report.
    Link http://www.qp.gov.sk.ca/documents/misc-publications/Indian_Justice_Review_Comm.pdf
  • Saskatchewan Métis Justice Review Committee
    Report Name Report of the Saskatchewan Métis Justice Review Committee
    Jurisdiction Saskatchewan
    Purpose/Mandate The Saskatchewan Métis Justice Review Committee was established to make recommendations relating to the delivery of criminal justice services to Saskatchewan Métis people and communities. Specifically, the recommendations were related to the development and operation of practical, community-based initiatives intended to enhance such services. A total of 89 recommendations were made in the report.
    Link http://www.publications.gov.sk.ca/freelaw/documents/misc-publications/Metis_Justice_Review_Comm.pdf
  • Cariboo-Chilcotin Justice Inquiry
    Report Name Report on the Cariboo-Chilcotin Justice Inquiry
    Jurisdiction British Columbia
    Purpose/Mandate The purpose of this Inquiry was not to initiate disciplinary action against any individual or group. Rather, the Commissioner was to ascertain the factors which gave rise to allegations of unfair treatment, prejudice, or the use of unnecessary or excessive force, determine the extent to which such problems exist in the administration of justice in the Cariboo-Chilcotin Region, and make recommendations for their rectification.
    Link http://www.llbc.leg.bc.ca/public/pubdocs/bcdocs/149599/cariboochilcotinjustice.pdf
  • Section 718.2(e) Criminal Code
    Name of Act Amendment to the Criminal Code
    Jurisdiction Federal
    Overview of Section Amendment to the Criminal Code, Section 718.2(e) states that “A court that imposes a sentence shall also take into consideration the following principles: (e) all available sanctions, other than imprisonment, that are reasonable in the circumstances and consistent with the harm done to victims or to the community should be considered for all offenders, with particular attention to the circumstances of Aboriginal offenders.”
    Link https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/C-46/page-182.html#h-267
  • Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples
    Report Name Aboriginal Justice Implementation Commission Final Report
    Jurisdiction National
    Purpose/Mandate The purpose of the Commission was to provide a framework for implementing the recommendations of previous inquiries with a view to reforming the existing criminal justice system. However, their primary focus was the recognition and establishment of Aboriginal justice systems as a recognition of the right of self-government. The development of such systems, based upon Aboriginal concepts and processes of justice, would enable Aboriginal peoples to address crime and the social disintegration associated with it in ways that promote responsibility and healing for victims, offenders and communities in the long term. The report provided a framework that offered both conceptual and constitutional space for the development of Aboriginal justice systems, while also dealing with the challenging issues raised by the inclusion of Aboriginal justice systems within Canadian federalism.
    Link http://data2.archives.ca/rcap/pdf/rcap-464.pdf
  • R. v. Williams
    Name of Case R. v. Williams, [1998] 1 S.C.R. 1128
    Key Question Whether prospective jurors can be questioned as to racial bias.
    Court level Supreme Court of Canada
    Summary of Case Victor Daniel Williams pleaded not guilty to a robbery. Williams argued that his rights under the Charter had been violated because he was denied the right to challenge potential jurors for cause to determine whether they held a racial bias against Aboriginals that might impair their impartiality. The Supreme Court held that “racial prejudice interfering with jurors' impartiality is a form of discrimination”, and so the denial of the right to question prospective jurors about systemic racism is a violation of the Charter rights of the accused.
    Link https://scc-csc.lexum.com/scc-csc/scc-csc/en/item/1631/index.do
  • R. v. Gladue
    Name of Case R. v. Gladue, [1999] 1 S.C.R. 688
    Key Question Whether special consideration was to be given by the sentencing judge to the accused’s Aboriginal background given the principles governing application of s. 718.2(e) of Criminal Code
    Court level Supreme Court of Canada
    Summary of Case In 1995 Jamie Tanis Gladue was charged with second-degree murder but pleaded guilty to manslaughter of her common-law husband, Reuben Beaver. Since she was not living on a reserve at the time of the murder, the judge ruled that section 718.2 (e) of the Criminal Code did not apply in her case. The section states that “all available sanctions, other than imprisonment, that are reasonable in the circumstances and consistent with the harm done to victims or to the community should be considered for all offenders, with particular attention to the circumstances of Aboriginal offenders.” The Supreme Court ruled that a judge must consider an Aboriginal community in a broad sense, including urban or more widely spread communities and networks of support. Consideration is not based on the residence of an Aboriginal offender. The circumstances of Aboriginal people are unique and a sentencing judge must consider: unique systemic or background factors; and sentencing procedures and sanctions which may be appropriate in the circumstance of a person with aboriginal heritage or connection.
    Link https://scc-csc.lexum.com/scc-csc/scc-csc/en/item/1695/index.do
  • R. v. Wells
    Name of Case R. v. Wells, [2000] 1 S.C.R. 207
    Key Question Whether non-custodial sentence is reasonable in circumstances where paramount sentencing objectives are denunciation and deterrence and whether the sentencing judge failed to take into account appropriate considerations in light of accused’s Aboriginal status.
    Court level Supreme Court of Canada
    Summary of Case James Warren Wells was charged with sexual assault. The Supreme Court decision was that given the seriousness of the crime, even though the court must take into account the offender's Aboriginal heritage, the sentencing judge made a reasonable determination that the sentence could not be served in the community since it would not provide sufficient denunciation and deterrence. The decision clarified the principles set out in the Court's earlier decision in R v Gladue with respect to sentencing principles set out in s 718.2(e) of the Criminal Code, relating to Aboriginal offenders.
    Link https://scc-csc.lexum.com/scc-csc/scc-csc/en/item/1771/index.do
  • Aboriginal Justice Implementation Commission
    Report Name Aboriginal Justice Implementation Commission Final Report
    Jurisdiction Manitoba
    Purpose/Mandate The Commission was mandated to review the progress of the implementation of the 1991 Aboriginal Justice Inquiry of Manitoba recommendations. The Commission's mandate stressed the need to set priorities for short-term and long-term action, and to make proposals that are cost-effective and attainable. At the same time, they must reflect the Aboriginal Justice Inquiry's support for a justice system that is flexible and can be administered at the local level.
    Link http://www.ajic.mb.ca/reports/final_toc.html
  • Saskatchewan Commission on First Nations and Métis People and Justice Reform
    Report Name Final Report from the Saskatchewan Commission on First Nations and Métis People and Justice Reform: Legacy of Hope: An Agenda for Change
    Jurisdiction Saskatchewan
    Purpose/Mandate The Commission was mandated to address concerns raised over the treatment of First Nations and Métis people by the justice system, in particular by police services. A total of 104 recommendations were made in the report.
    Link http://www.publications.gov.sk.ca/freelaw/documents/misc-publications/LegacyofHopeVol1_reduced.pdf
  • Commission of Inquiry into the Death of Neil Stonechild
    Report Name Report of the Commission of Inquiry: Into Matters Relating to the Death of Neil Stonechild
    Jurisdiction Saskatchewan
    Purpose/Mandate The Commission of Inquiry was mandated to inquire into the circumstances that resulted in the death of Neil Stonechild and the conduct of the investigation into the death. A total of 8 recommendations were made in the report.
    Link http://www.publications.gov.sk.ca/freelaw/Publications_Centre/Justice/Stonechild/Stonechild-FinalReport.pdf
  • United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
    Report Name United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
    Jurisdiction International
    Purpose/Mandate The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples is a document that describes both individual and collective rights of Indigenous people around the world. It offers guidance on cooperative relationships with Indigenous people to states, the United Nations, and other international organizations based on the principles of equality, partnership, good faith and mutual respect. The declaration was adopted by resolution of the United Nations General Assembly on September 13, 2007. In 2010, Canada issued a statement of support endorsing the principles of the Declaration. In 2015, the Prime Minister of Canada asked the Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs and other ministers, in the mandate letters, to implement the declaration; in 2016 the Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs announced Canada is now a full supporter, without qualification, of the declaration.
    Link https://www.un.org/development/desa/indigenouspeoples/wp-content/uploads/sites/19/2018/11/UNDRIP_E_web.pdf
  • Ipperwash Inquiry
    Report Name The Ipperwash Inquiry
    Jurisdiction Ontario
    Purpose/Mandate Under the Public Inquiries Act, the Government of Ontario established the Ipperwash Inquiry. The mandate was to: inquire into and report on events surrounding the death of Dudley George, who was shot in 1995 during a protest by First Nations representatives at Ipperwash Provincial Park; and make recommendations to avoid violence in similar circumstances. A total of 20 recommendations were made.
    Link https://www.attorneygeneral.jus.gov.on.ca/inquiries/ipperwash/report/vol_1/index.html
  • United Nations General Assembly
    Report Name Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights and fundamental freedoms of Indigenous people
    Jurisdiction International
    Purpose/Mandate The report from the United Nations Human Rights Council provides an analysis of the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, in the context of other international instruments specifically regarding Indigenous peoples and human rights instruments of general applicability. Reflecting on the common international body of opinion regarding the rights of Indigenous peoples, the Declaration elaborates on general human standards as they apply to the specific context of Indigenous peoples, with a particular emphasis on the remedial measures required to address the historical contemporary denial of their rights
    Link http://unsr.jamesanaya.org/docs/annual/2008_hrc_annual_report_en.pdf
  • Independent Review by the Honourable Frank Iacobucci
    Report Name First Nations Representation on Ontario Juries
    Jurisdiction Ontario
    Purpose/Mandate Appointed by an Order in Council to conduct an independent review to make recommendations to ensure and enhance the representation of First Nations persons living on reserve communities on the jury roll and to strengthen the understanding, cooperation and relationship between the Ministry of the Attorney General and First Nations on the issue.
    Link https://www.attorneygeneral.jus.gov.on.ca/english/about/pubs/iacobucci/First_Nations_Representation_Ontario_Juries.html
  • R v. Ipeelee
    Name of Case R. v. Ipeelee, 2012 SCC 13, [2012] 1 S.C.R. 433
    Key Question Whether principles outlined in R. v. Gladue apply to breach of long‑term supervision orders.
    Court level Supreme Court of Canada
    Summary of Case Supreme Court reaffirmed and expanded the principles laid out in the Gladue ruling in the case of R. v. Ipeelee. Indigenous appellants Manasie Ipeelee and Frank Ralph Ladue had breached long-term supervision orders (LTSO), and their appeals consequently centered on the determination of a fit sentence for a breach of an LTSO in the case of an Aboriginal offender. The Supreme Court stated that “the sentencing judge has a statutory duty”, imposed by s. 718.2 (e) of the Criminal Code, to consider the unique circumstances of Aboriginal offenders. These may include: the history of colonialism, displacement, residential schools and how this history continues to translate into lower educational attainment, lower incomes, higher unemployment, higher rates of substance abuse and suicide, and higher levels of incarceration for Aboriginal peoples. If the sentencing judge fails to apply the Gladue principles in any case involving an Aboriginal offender this would run afoul of this statutory obligation. Furthermore, the failure to apply the Gladue principles in any case would also result in a sentence that was not fit and was not consistent with the fundamental principle of proportionality. Therefore, application of the Gladue principles is required in every case involving an Aboriginal offender, including the breach of an LTSO, and a failure to do so constitutes an error justifying appellate intervention.”
    Link https://scc-csc.lexum.com/scc-csc/scc-csc/en/item/8000/index.do
  • Spirit Matters: Aboriginal People and the Corrections and Conditional Release Act
    Report Name Spirit Matters: Aboriginal People and the Corrections and Conditional Release Act Final Report
    Jurisdiction National
    Purpose/Mandate The Office of the Correctional Investigator reviewed Aboriginal-specific sections of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (CCRA) 20 years after it came into force (1992) and 13 years after the Supreme Court of Canada decision in R. v. Gladue. The investigation examines: the status and use of Section 81 and 84 provisions up to the period ending March 2012; identifies some best practices in Aboriginal corrections; and assesses the commitment by the Correctional Service of Canada to adopt the principles set out in R. v. Gladue. A total of 20 recommendations were made.
    Link http://www.oci-bec.gc.ca/cnt/rpt/oth-aut/oth-aut20121022-eng.aspx
  • Missing Women Commission of Inquiry
    Report Name Forsaken: The Report of the Missing Women Commission of Inquiry Executive Summary
    Jurisdiction British Columbia
    Purpose/Mandate The Missing Women Commission of Inquiry was ordered by the Lieutenant Governor in Council in 2010. Their four part mandate was to: evaluate the response of law enforcement to reports of missing and murdered women from Downtown Eastside of Vancouver; evaluate the reasons for staying charges against Robert Pickton in January 1998; recommend changes regarding how missing women and suspected homicides are handled; and recommend changes to how cases are handled when they involve more than one investigating organization. A total of 63 recommendations were made.
    Link http://www.missingwomeninquiry.ca/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/Forsaken-ES-web-RGB.pdf
  • Truth and Reconciliation Commission
    Report Name Honouring the Truth, Reconciling for the Future; The Survivors Speak; What We Have Learned; Canada’s Residential Schools: The History, Part 1 Origins to 1939; Canada’s Residential Schools: The History, Part 2: 1939 to 2000; Canada’s Residential Schools: The Inuit and Northern Experience; Canada’s Residential Schools: The Métis Experience; Canada’s Residential Schools: Missing Children and Unmarked Burials; Canada’s Residential Schools: The Legacy; Canada’s Residential Schools: Reconciliation; Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada: Calls to Action
    Jurisdiction National
    Purpose/Mandate The Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement, the largest class-action settlement in Canadian history, began in 2007. One of the elements of the agreement was the establishment of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (TRC) to facilitate reconciliation among former students, their families, their communities and all Canadians. The TRC created a historical record of the residential schools system in its six volume report, including 94 "calls to action" (or recommendations) to further reconciliation between Canadians and Indigenous people. The TRC spent six years travelling to all parts of Canada and heard from more than 6,500 witnesses. The TRC also hosted seven national events to engage the Canadian public, educate people about the history and legacy of the residential schools system, and share and honour the experiences of former students and their families.
    Link http://nctr.ca/reports2.php
  • Ontario Human Rights Commission Consultation
    Report Name Under suspicion: Research and consultation report on racial profiling in Ontario
    Jurisdiction Ontario
    Purpose/Mandate In 2015, the Ontario Human Rights Commission (OHRC) began a year-long consultation to learn more about the nature of racial profiling in Ontario. Our aim was to gather information that will help guide organizations, individuals and communities on how to identify, address and prevent racial profiling. This included reaching out to Indigenous people and groups representing Indigenous communities to understand their perspectives and experiences of racial profiling. In addition to the main report, a separate summary of Indigenous perspectives is also available.
    Link http://unsr.jamesanaya.org/docs/annual/2008_hrc_annual_report_en.pdf http://www.ohrc.on.ca/en/under-suspicion-issues-raised-indigenous-peoples
  • National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls
    Report Name Interim Report: Our Women and Girls are Sacred
    Jurisdiction National
    Purpose/Mandate The National Inquiry set out on a three-part mission as a path to healing: finding the truth, honouring the truth, and giving life to the truth. To move the national conversation forward about the inherent violence in the colonial relationship between the Canadian state and Indigenous people, the Inquiry built on the knowledge inherited from past inquiries including the Aboriginal Justice Inquiry of Manitoba (1991), the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1996), and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (2015). In addition to recognizing a number of existing recommendations from past inquiries, committees and reports, two calls for immediate action and eight recommendations were made.
    Link http://www.mmiwg-ffada.ca/files/ni-mmiwg-interim-report-en.pdf
  • Public Inquiry Commission on relations between Indigenous People and certain public services in Québec
    Report Name Public Inquiry Commission on relations between Indigenous Peoples and certain public services in Québec: listening, reconciliation and progress Joint Final Presentation
    Jurisdiction Quebec
    Purpose/Mandate The Commission’s mandate was to make recommendations concerning concrete, effective and durable remedial actions to be implemented by the Government of Quebec and by the Indigenous authorities with a view to preventing or eliminating, whatever the origin and cause, any form of violence, discriminatory practices or different treatment in the provision of the following public services to the Indigenous people of Quebec: police services, correctional services, justice services, health and social services as well as youth protection services. A total of 15 recommendations were made.
    Link https://cngov.ca/news-issues/current-issues/cerp-report/
  • Principles: Respecting the Government of Canada’s Relationship with Indigenous Peoples
    Report Name Principles: Respecting the Government of Canada’s Relationship with Indigenous Peoples
    Jurisdiction National
    Purpose/Mandate Ten principles are outlined to guide the work of the Government of Canada to achieve reconciliation with Indigenous peoples through a renewed, nation-to-nation, government-to-government, and Inuit-Crown relationship based on recognition of rights, respect, co-operation, and partnership as the foundation for transformative change. These principles reflect a commitment to good faith, the rule of law, democracy, equality, non-discrimination, and respect for human rights.
    Link https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/csj-sjc/principles.pdf
  • National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls
    Report Name Final Report: Reclaiming Power and Place: The Final Report of the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls
    Jurisdiction National
    Purpose/Mandate The Final Report is comprised of the truths of more than 2,380 family members, survivors of violence, experts and Knowledge Keepers shared over two years of cross-country public hearings and evidence gathering. It delivers 231 individual Calls for Justice directed at governments, institutions, social service providers, industries and all Canadians.
    Link https://www.mmiwg-ffada.ca/final-report/
  • Public Inquiry Commission on relations between Indigenous Peoples and certain public services in Québec
    Report Name Public Inquiry Commission on relations between Indigenous Peoples and certain public services in Québec: listening, reconciliation and progress
    Jurisdiction Quebec
    Purpose/Mandate The Commission’s mandate was to shed light on the issues that characterize relations between Indigenous peoples and the providers of certain public services throughout Québec. The final report puts forward 142 measures, several of which stem from findings that apply to all services investigated.
    Link https://www.cerp.gouv.qc.ca/index.php?id=2&L=1

For related studies and resources, please click on the link above.

Click on the link above to learn how to share your study on Indigenous people’s experiences interacting with the criminal justice system

Date modified: